Republic of the
PEOPLE OF THE
G.R. No. 174861
- versus -
REYNALDO OLESCO Y ANDAYANG,
April 11, 2011
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D E C I S I O N
In rape, the sweetheart defense must be proven by compelling evidence: first, that the accused and the victim were lovers; and, second, that she consented to the alleged sexual relations. The second is as important as the first, because this Court has held often enough that love is not a license for lust.
On appeal is the May 30, 2006 Decision of the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA-G.R. CR-H.C. No. 00701 which affirmed in its entirety the September 23, 2003 Decision of the Regional Trial Court of Paraaque City, Branch 258 finding appellant Reynaldo Olesco guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of rape.
On November 5, 2001, an Information was filed charging appellant with rape committed as follows:
That on or about the 17th day of October 2001, in BBB, CCC, and within the jurisdiction of this Honorable Court, the above-named accused, by means of force and intimidation, did then and there willfully, unlawfully and feloniously have sexual intercourse with the complainant AAA, 18 years old, against her will and consent.
CONTRARY TO LAW.
During his arraignment, appellant entered a plea of not guilty. Thereafter, trial ensued.
The facts of the case as narrated in the Decision of the appellate court are as follows:
The evidence for the prosecution shows that on October 17, 2001, at around 10:00 oclock in the evening, AAA, accompanied x x x her cousin in going out of DDD in BBB. On her way back home, AAA passed by a bakery where Olesco was working. Thereafter, somebody pulled her and covered her mouth with a hanky which caused her to be unconscious. When she regained consciousness at around 11:00 oclock p.m., AAA found herself naked beside Olesco inside a room located near the bakery. Her whole body ached, especially her cheeks, tummy and her private part. AAA then slapped the accused three times and asked him why he raped her. Olesco answered that he would kill her should she report the incident to the police. After a while, accused told her to go home. She dressed up immediately and went home running.
When she arrived home, AAA told her cousin EEE about what happened. After two (2) days, AAA reported the incident to the barangay. The barangay officials asked her the whereabouts of the accused which she did not know then as she saw the accused [only] once and knows him only by face since at that time, she was just a week old in DDD.
AAA explained that she was able to report the incident to the barangay officials two days after it happened since when she woke up in the morning of October 18, 200, it was already 9:00 oclock a.m. and she could not stand as her whole body ached.
Thereafter, the barangay officials referred the matter to
the police. An investigation was
subsequently conducted. Thereafter,
AAA was referred to the Philippine National Police Crime Division,
On October 20, 2001, Dr. Jericho Angelito Q. Cordero, a
Medico-Legal Officer based at the Philippine National Police Crime Laboratory,
x x x x
According to Dr. Cordero, at the time of the examination, AAA was in a non-virgin state physically which means that she had a previous intercourse x x x about ten days or maybe a year ago. AAA had also a lacerated wound with a healing period of about ten (10) to fifteen (15) days caused by a hard, blunt instrument inserted into her vagina like a finger or an erect penis which would fit and succumb to elasticity or x x x a stick. He also testified that the laceration of the victim was consistent with the time of the alleged commission of the crime. He likewise testified that AAA told him that she only discovered the wounds when she woke up [naked] at about 10:00 oclock in the evening of October 17, 200 with Olesco beside her x x x. Aside from his Initial Medico-Legal Report, he likewise made his Final Report No. M-2674-01 (Exhibit E) whereby he concluded that there are no external signs of any form of trauma on the external genital area which has a deep healed laceration consistent with sexual intercourse.
Olesco denied having raped AAA and put up the
sweetheart defense. He testified that
he worked as a baker for five (5) months in a bakery inside FFF, BBB, owned
by Rafael Arimado. Prior to the alleged
rape incident, AAA used to buy bread in the bakery. He came to know her when AAA introduced
herself x x x. After three months, he
and AAA became sweethearts. According
to Olesco, there is no truth to the complaint filed against him by AAA. He alleged that it was AAA who went to him
at the bakery at around 7:00 oclock in the evening of October 17, 2001. AAA wanted him to go with her [to her]
Ruling of the Regional Trial Court
On September 23, 2003, the RTC rendered its Decision disposing as follows:
In fine, the Court finds accused, REYNALDO OLESCO Y ONDAYANG liable for SIMPLE RAPE under Article 266-A, par. 1 3(b) in relation to Art. 266-B of the Revised Penal Code as amended by R.A. 8353 and the penalty to be meted the accused should be RECLUSION PERPETUA in the absence of any aggravating or qualifying circumstance which is from twenty (20) years and one (1) day to forty (40) years of imprisonment.
accused has to indemnify the private complainant the amount of
as civil indemnity as well as the amount of P50,000.00 as moral
damages. This is because under the
present case law, an award of P50,000.00 as civil indemnity is mandatory
upon finding of the fact of rape. This
is exclusive of the award of moral damages of P50,000.00 without need of
further proof as it is now recognized as inherently concomitant with and
necessarily proceeds from the appalling crime of rape which per se warrants an
award for moral damages. (People v. Caratay, 316 SCRA 251).
WHEREFORE, the prosecution having been able to prove the guilt of accused, REYNALDO OLESCO y ONDAYANG beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of SIMPLE RAPE defined and punished under Art. 266-A, par. 1[,] 3(b) in relation to Art. 266-B of the Revised Penal Code as amended by R.A. 8353[,] accused REYNALDO OLESCO y ONDAYANG is hereby sentenced to suffer the penalty of RECLUSION PERPETUA.
to existing jurisprudence, accused REYNALDO OLESCO y ONDAYANG, is ordered to
indemnify AAA, the private complainant, the amount of
civil indemnity and P50,000.00 as moral damages.
No pronouncement as to cost.
In finding appellant guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of rape, the RTC noted that AAA positively identified appellant as the malefactor; that appellant failed to rebut the testimony of the victim or impute ill-motive on her part; and that AAAs testimony was brief, clear, and straightforward and supported by the medical findings. Moreover, the RTC observed that appellants sweetheart defense lacked sufficient and convincing proof; neither was it substantiated by any documentary and/or other evidence like mementos, love letters, notes, pictures and the like. Worse, appellant did not present his employer or any of his co-workers to corroborate his claim that he and AAA were sweethearts and that AAA used to frequent his place. The RTC also held that assuming AAA and appellant were sweethearts, it does not serve as license or justification to commit rape.
Ruling of the Court of Appeals
On appeal, the appellate court affirmed the trial courts Decision in toto, viz:
WHEREFORE, the assailed September 23, 2003 Decision of
Hence, this appeal.
The Parties Arguments
Appellee maintains that appellants guilt was proven beyond reasonable doubt.
On the other hand, appellant claims that he was denied his right to due process considering that as alleged in the Information, the rape was committed through the use of force and intimidation. However, what was established by the prosecution is the fact that AAA was unconscious when she was raped. Appellant also insists that there was nothing in AAAs testimony that would indicate that appellant had sexual intercourse with her. Appellant likewise insists that no sufficient evidence was presented to prove his culpability. He argues that AAAs testimony is ambiguous and full of discrepancies. He opines that AAAs claim that she lost consciousness when her mouth was covered with a drug-laced handkerchief was unbelievable and ridiculous. Moreover, appellant alleges that AAAs testimony in open court contradicts her narration in her Sinumpaang Salaysay.
The appeal lacks merit.
The CA correctly disregarded appellants claim that he did not use force nor resort to intimidation in the commission of the crime. We agree with the CA that appellants act of pulling AAA and covering her face with drug-laced handkerchief is synonymous with force, to wit:
It has been duly established that when AAA passed by the bakery, Olesco immediately pulled her and covered her mouth with a handkerchief. She smelled something like a snow bear and lost consciousness. Thereafter, Olesco raped her.
In other words, AAA became unconscious after accused employed force on her; that is, pulling her and covering her mouth with a snow bear smelling hanky. The act of pulling her and covering her face with a drug-laced hanky is the immediate cause why AAA fell unconscious which facilitated accuseds bestial desire against AAA. There is, therefore, no truth to the claim of Olesco that no force was employed upon AAA to satisfy his bestial desire. It is a well-established doctrine that for the crime of rape to exist, it is not necessary that the force employed accomplishing it be so great or of such character as could not be resisted; it is only necessary that the force employed by the guilty party be sufficient to consummate the purpose which he had in view x x x. Thus, the use of force and intimidation as alleged in the information has been sufficiently established.
Indeed, [f]ailure to offer tenacious resistance does not make the submission by the complainant to the criminal acts of the accused voluntary. What is necessary is that the force employed against her be sufficient to consummate the purpose which he has in mind.
Appellants contentions that AAAs testimony is ambiguous and full of discrepancies and that her claim that she lost consciousness when her mouth was covered with a drug-laced handkerchief is unbelievable and ridiculous deserve scant consideration. To be sure, these contentions pertain to the assessment of witnesss credibility which is properly within the province of the trial court. In this case, the trial court held that:
Based on the foregoing, the Court in its careful analysis of the testimonies of the prosecution witnesses as compared to that of the defense, found that those of the former carry greater weight and credence for being straightforward, reasonable, clear and categorical which is entirely different from the allegations of the defense. To the Court, the rape was consummated under paragraph 1, 3(b) of Article 266-A of the Revised Penal Code.
We find no reason to depart from said findings of the trial court, which were affirmed by the CA. As a rule, x x x findings [of the trial court] deserve weight and respect. The same is true as regards the evaluation of the credibility of witnesses, because it is the trial judge who hears them and observes their demeanor while testifying. It is only when the trial court has overlooked or misapprehended some facts or circumstances of weight and influence that these matters are re-opened for independent examination and review by appellate courts. The age-old rule is that the task of assigning values to the testimonies of witnesses in the stand and weighing their credibility is best left to the trial court which forms its first-hand impressions as a witness testifies before it.
Both the trial court and the CA properly disregarded appellants claim that he and AAA were sweethearts. The sweetheart theory or sweetheart defense is an oft-abused justification that rashly derides the intelligence of this Court and sorely tests our patience. For the Court to even consider giving credence to such defense, it must be proven by compelling evidence. The defense cannot just present testimonial evidence in support of the theory, as in the instant case. Independent proof is required -- such as tokens, mementos, and photographs. There is none presented here by the defense.  Thus:
Q So, you said you came to know this AAA since she used to buy bread at the bakery and you testified that you became steady. Can you remember what particular month or date you became steady with AAA?
A I cannot remember that anymore, maam.
x x x x
Q And do you have any remembrance or anything that will prove that this AAA has been your steady or girlfriend?
A None, maam.
Q And how long did you become steady with this AAA before October 17?
A Three (3) months, maam.
In any event, the claim is inconsequential since it is well-settled that being sweethearts does not negate the commission of rape because such fact does not give appellant license to have sexual intercourse against her will, and will not exonerate him from the criminal charge of rape. Being sweethearts does not prove consent to the sexual act. Thus, having failed to satisfactorily establish that AAA voluntarily consented to engage in sexual intercourse with him, the said act constitutes rape on the part of the appellant.
Finally, we note that AAA lost no time in reporting the incident to her cousin who in turn immediately relayed the same to the barangay officials which resulted in the arrest of the appellant. On the other hand, appellant failed to rebut AAAs testimony that prior to the incident she saw appellant only once considering that AAA was new to the place, having stayed thereat for only a week before the rape. Even appellant could not ascribe any ill will on the part of AAA. More significantly, appellant did not present his employer or any of his co-workers who could supposedly corroborate his claim that he only talked with AAA on the night of October 17, 2001.
regards the award of damages, the trial court, as affirmed by the CA, correctly
P50,000.00 as civil indemnity and P50,000.00 as moral
damages. However, in line with current
jurisprudence, an additional award of P30,000.00 as exemplary damages
should likewise be given, as well as interest of six percent (6%) per annum on
all damages awarded from the finality of judgment until fully paid.
WHEREFORE, the appeal is DENIED. The
May 30, 2006 Decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. CR-H.C. No.
00701 which affirmed the September 23, 2003 Decision of the Regional Trial
Court of Paraaque City, Branch 258 finding appellant Reynaldo Olesco guilty
beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of rape and sentencing him to suffer the
penalty of reclusion perpetua and to
P50,000.00 as civil indemnity and another P50,000.00 as moral
damages to AAA is AFFIRMED with MODIFICATIONS that an additional award
of P30,000.00 as exemplary damages should likewise be given, with
interest at the rate of six percent (6%) per annum on all the damages awarded
in this case from the finality of this judgment until fully paid.
RENATO C. CORONA
PRESBITERO J. VELASCO, JR.
TERESITA J. LEONARDO-DE CASTRO
C E R T I F I C A T I O N
Pursuant to Section 13, Article VIII of the Constitution, it is hereby certified that the conclusions in the above Decision had been reached in consultation before the case was assigned to the writer of the opinion of the Courts Division.
RENATO C. CORONA
 Also spelled as Ondayang in some parts of the records.
 People v. Bautista, G.R. No. 140278, June 3, 2004, 430 SCRA 469, 471.
 CA rollo, pp. 107-116; penned by Associate Justice Elvi John S. Asuncion and concurred in by Associate Justices Noel G. Tijam and Mariflor P. Punzalan Castillo.
Records, pp. 132-138; penned by
Judge Raul E. De
 The identity of the victim or any information which could establish or compromise her identity, as well as those of her immediate family or household members, shall be withheld pursuant to Republic Act No. 7610, An Act Providing for Stronger Deterrence and Special Protection Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination, and for Other Purposes; Republic Act No. 9262, An Act Defining Violence Against Women and Their Children, Providing for Protective Measures for Victims, Prescribing Penalties Therefor, and for Other Purposes; and Section 40 of A.M. No. 04-10-11-SC, known as the Rule on Violence Against Women and Their Children, effective November 5, 2004.
 Records, p. 18.
 CA rollo, pp. 108-111.
 Records, pp. 137-138.
 CA rollo, p. 116.
 People v. Bautista, supra note 2 at 488.
 Records, p. 144.
 People v. Bautista, supra note 2 at 478-479.
 People v. Magbanua, G.R. No. 176265, April 30, 2008, 553 SCRA 698, 704.
 People v. Baldo, G.R. No. 175238, February 24, 2009, 580 SCRA 225, 232.
 TSN, January 30, 2003, p. 12.
 People v. Magbanua, supra note 25.
 Q Now, you said that on October 17, 2001, you only went with AAA to a room and talked for about five (5) minutes and now the following day she is filing a case of rape against you. Do you know of any reason for her filing a case of rape when you said that nothing happened that night?
A I do not understand why she filed a complaint of rape against me, sir.
x x x x
Q So, you are saying now, Mr. Witness, that there is no reason for AAA to have filed this rape case because nothing happened. You did not quarrel or there was never a confrontation between you [on the night of] October 17, 2001, am I correct?
A I do not know the reason why, maam. (TSN, January 30, 2003, pp. 11 and 15.)
 People v. Alverio, G.R. No. 194259, March 16, 2011.