Welcome to the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Welcome to the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Welcome to the Supreme Court of the Philippines
READ: Infographics on Bar Bulletin No. 2-2023 Re: Application Requirements for the 2023 Bar Examinations sc.judiciary.gov.ph/files/bar-2023 #WeCanDoIt #HernanDoIt #Bar2023

PhilJA

Training Programs and Activities (TPAs) with Gender Disaggregated Number of Participants Academic Year: 2022
PROGRAMSTOTAL TPAsMALEFEMALETOTAL
CORE PROGRAMS3292315942517
CONVENTION SEMINARS443914201859
SPECIAL FOCUS PROGRAMS2993012132143
SPECIAL LECTURE PROGRAM1335487
MEDIATION PROGRAMS12266267533
TOTAL782591 4548 7139

CORE PROGRAMS

ACTIVITYTOTAL TPAs
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges3
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court2
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Court Interpreters2
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Sheriffs and Process Servers2
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Court Stenographers3
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Trial Court Employees3
Career Enhancement Program for Clerks of Court1
Career Enhancement Program for Court Legal Researchers1
Career Enhancement Program for Court Librarians1
Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts8
Pre-Judicature Program for the Appellate Courts4
Academic Affairs Office Strategic Planning2

CONVENTION SEMINARS

ACTIVITYTOTAL TPAs
27th Annual Convention of  the Philippine Women Judges Association (PWJA)1
Annual Convention and Seminar of the Metropolitan and City Judges Association of the Philippines, Inc. (MetCJAP)1
2022 Mid-Term Convention and Seminar of the Philippine Judges Association1
National Convention and Seminar of the Philippine Trial Judges League, Inc. (PTJLI)1

SPECIAL FOCUS PROGRAMS

ACTIVITYTOTAL TPAs
Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board4
Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime6
PJ365 Orientation Seminar for Sandiganbayan Justices, Court Officials and Personnel1
Needs Analysis and Introduction to Principles of Effective Court Data Management1
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children2
Multi-Sectoral Forum and Summit on Environmental Laws and the Rules of Procedure for Environmental Cases1
Knowledge Sharing on the Modernization of Criminal Law1
Training of Trainers on the Rules on the Use of Body-Worn Cameras in the Execution of Warrants1
Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice4
Seminar-Workshop on Dangerous Drugs Law2
Roundtable Discussion on the Role of Judicial Education in the Adminisration of Justice1
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Trafficking in Persons Cases2
Round Table Discussion on Issues Concerning Commercial Courts and Distribution of Benchbook for Commercial Courts1
Colloquium on Intellectual Property for the Judiciary1
HCCH Asia Pacific Week I Manila 20221

SPECIAL LECTURE PROGRAM

ACTIVITYTOTAL TPAs
18th Metrobank Foundation Professorial Chair Lecture1

MEDIATION PROGRAMS

ACTIVITYTOTAL TPAs
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills Based Course)5
Enhanced Refresher Course for Court-Annexed Mediators (Skills Enhancement Course)7

LIST OF TPAs CONDUCTED
January to December 31, 2022

CORE PROGRAMS

 CODEDESCRIPTIONDATEVENUEGENDERTOTAL
MF
12828 PJP-TC (56)   ’22Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts
(Asynchronous Sessions-01/24-28/22)
1/31/2022-2/11/2022via Distance Learning163046
22831 O-J   (96)   ’2296th Orientation Seminar Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges2/15/2022-3/4/2022via Distance Learning151934
32833 PJP   (57)   ’22Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts
(Asynchronous Sessions-02/21-24/22)
2/28/2022-3/11/2022via Distance Learning163046
42838 PJP-A   (2)   ’22Second Pre-Judicature Program for the Appellate Courts
(Asynchronous Sessions-3/14 to 4/1/22)
4/4/2022-4/8/2022via Distance Learning211435
52839 O-J   (97)   ’2297th Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges (Batch 1)
(Asynchronous Session – 3/28 to 4/1/22)
4/4/2022-4/27/2022via Distance Learning304777
62840 O-J   (98)   ’2298th Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges (Batch 2)
(Asynchronous Session – 3/28 to 4/1/22)
4/4/2022-4/27/2022via Distance Learning304575
72841 CEP LR  (36)   ’22Career Enhancement Program for Court Legal Researchers4/11/2022-4/13/2022via Distance Learning232346
82845 O-CI   (3)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Court Interpreters5/4/2022-5/5/2022via Distance Learning2781108
92846 PJP  (58)   ’2258th Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Cours
(Asynchronous Sessions-5/2-6/22)
5/10/2022-5/23/2022via Distance Learning313162
102851 O-COC   (48)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court5/30/2022-6/3/2022via Distance Learning225274
112853 O-TCE   (9)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Trial Court Employees6/7/2022-6/9/2022via Distance Learning5678134
122854 PJP (59)   ’2259th Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts
(Asynchronous Sessions-6/6-10/22)
6/13/2022-6/24/2022via Distance Learning103747
132855 PJP-AC   (3)   ’22Third Pre-Judicature Program for Appellate Courts
(Asynchronous Sessions-5/17 to 6/13/22)
6/14/2022-6/16/2022via Distance Learning & Rizal Park Hotel, Manila61319
142857 O SH/PS  (25)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Sheriffs and Process Servers6/27/2022-6/30/2022via Distance Learning10628134
152859 AAO-SP   (1)   ’22Academic Affairs Office Strategic Planning7/5/1922The Judicial Academy Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City201838
162861 O-CS   (12)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Court Stenographers7/13/2022-7/15/2022via Distance Learning27100127
172862 PJP-TC   (60)   ’2260th Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts
(Asynchronous Learning- 7/11 to 18/ 22)
7/18/2022-7/26/2022via Distance Learning294473
182863 CEP CL  (5)   ’22Career Enhancement Program for Court Librarians7/19/2022-7/21/2022via Distance Learning55055
192866 TOT-PJP/AC  (1)   ’22PHILJA Academic Council Meeting and Enhanced Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Cours Training of Trainers7/27/2022Rizal Park Hotel, Manila312556
202867 O-CI   (4)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Court Interpreters7/28/2022-7/29/2022via Distance Learning21116137
212868 CEP COC  (59)   ’22Career Enhancement Program for Clerks of Court8/2/2022-8/5/2022via Distance Learning143650
222873 PJP-TC   (61)   ’2261st Pre-Judicature Program
(Asynchronous Learning-08/15 to 29/22)
8/30/2022-9/3/2022The Judicial Academy Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City375895
232876 O-TCE   (10)   ’22Orientation Seminar Workshop for Newly Appointed Trial Court Employees9/14/2022-9/16/2022via Distance Learning38104142
242879 O-CS   (13)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Court Stenographer9/27/2022-9/29/2022via Distance Learning19120139
252884 O-SH/PS   (26)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Sheriffs and Process Servers10/11/2022-10/14/2022via Distance Learning8328111
262888 O-TCE   (11)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Trial Court Employees10/19/2022-10/21/2022via Distance Learning4171112
272889 PJP-TC   (62)   ’22Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts
(Asynchronous Learning-10/10-10/23/22)
10/24/2022-10/28/2022The Judicial Academy Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City484795
282890 O-COC   (50)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court10/24/2022-10/28/2022via Distance Learning155570
292893 AAO SP  (2)   ’22Academic Affairs Office Strategic Review of Programs11/3/2022-11/4/2022The Judicial Academy of the Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City191837
302899 PJP-AC  (4)   ’22Fourth Pre-Judicature Program for the Appellate Courts
(Asynchronous Learning- 11/7-27/22)
11/28/2022-11/30/2022The Judiciary Academy of the Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City253459
312900 PJP-AC  (5)   ’22Fifth Pre-Judicature Program for the Appellate Courts
(Asynchronous Learning- 11/7-27/22)
12/5/2022-12/7/2022The Judicial Academy of the Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City262349
322903 O-CS   (13)   ’22Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Court Stenographers12/12/2022-12/14/2022via Distance Leaning16119135

CONVENTION SEMINARS

 CODEDESCRIPTIONDATEVENUEGENDERTOTAL
MF
332835 C/S PWJA  (19)   ’2227th Annual Convention of  the Philippine Women Judges Association (PWJA)3/7/2022-3/9/2022via Distance Learning0819819
342880 C/S MetCJAP  (22)   ’22Annual Convention and Seminar of the Metropolitan and City Judges Association of the Philippines, Inc. (MetCJAP)9/28/2022-9/30/2022Hennan Palm Beach Hotel, Boracay Island, Aklan4981130
 CODEDESCRIPTION

DATE

VENUE

GENDER

TOTAL

M

F

352885 C/S PTJLI  (29)   ’22National Convention and Seminar of the Philippine Trial Judges League, Inc. (PTJLI)

10/12/2022-10/14/2022

Travelers Hotel, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City

132

224

356

362887 C/S PJA  (25)   ’222022 Mid-Term Convention and Seminar of the Philippine Judges Association

10/19/2022-10/21/2022

Shangri-La The Fort, Manila, BGC, Taguig City

258

296

554

SPECIAL FOCUS PROGRAMS

 CODEDESCRIPTIONDATEVENUEGENDERTOTAL
MF
372827 SF JIB  (5)   ’22Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board1/26/2022via Distance Learning4369112
382829 SF JIB  (6)   ’22Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board2/9/2022via Distance Learning5676132
392830 SF CC  (13)   ’22Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime
(Asynchronous Sessions-02/2-9/22)
2/10/2022-2/11/2022via Distance Learning15924
402832 SF PJ365  (2)   ’22PJ365 Orientation Seminar for Sandiganbayan Justices, Court Officials and Personnel2/17/2022-2/18/2022via Distance Learning3764101
412834 SF JIB  (7)   ’22Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board3/2/2022via Distance Learning5863121
422837 SF JIB  (8)   ’22Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board3/25/2022via Distance Learning7255127
432842 SF CC  (14)   ’22Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime
(Asynchronous Sessions-4/11-20/22)
4/21/2022-4/22/2022via Distance Learning171027
442843 SF UNODC  (1)   ’22Needs Analysis and Introduction to Principles of Effective Court Data Management4/27/2022-4/28/2022Hillton Clark Sun Valley Resort, Clark City, Pampanga122335
452847 SF CET-CIC  (50)   ’22Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children5/16/2022-5/20/2022via Distance Learning225375
462848 SF ENVI  (1)   ’22Multi-Sectoral Forum and Summit on Environmental Laws and the Rules of Procedure for Environmental Cases5/16/2022-5/25/2022via Distance Learning12796223
472850 SF CC  (15)   ’22Seminar Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime
(Asynchronous Sessions-5/16-25/22)
5/26/2022Edsa Shangri-La Hotel, Mandaluyong City3912
482852 SF CALESA  (1)   ’22Knowledge Sharing on the Modernization of Criminal Law6/6/2022-6/9/2022via Distance Learning & The Judicial Academy of the Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City80115195
492856 SF TOT-BWC  (1)   ’22Training of Trainers on the Rules on the Use of Body-Worn Cameras in the Execution of Warrants6/23/2022-6/24/2022The Judicial Academy of the Philippines (TJAP), Tagaytay City301545
502864 SF OBET-JJ  (7)   ’22Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice7/25/2022-7/29/2022via Distance Learning166581
512870 SF CC  (16)   ’22Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime
(Asynchronous Learning- 8/1-18/22)
8/19/2022via distance learning & Marco Polo Hotel, Ortigas, Manila222244
522871 SF DL  (45)   ’22Seminar-Workshop on Dangerous Drugs Law8/24/2022-8/26/2022via Distance Learning5650106
532872 SF RTD MB (1)   ’22Roundtable Discussion on the Role of Judicial Education in the Adminisration of Justice8/25/2022Alex Reyes Conference Room, 4th Floor, CA Main Building, Court of Appeals, Manila538
542875 SF OBET-JJ ME  (1)   ’22Monitoring and Evaluation Framework and Launching of the Learning Management System of the Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice9/12/2022-9/13/2022Rizal Park Hotel, Manila41418
552877 SF CC  (17)   ’22Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime
(Asynchronous Learning- 9/5-15/22)
9/16/2022Edsa Shangri-La Hotel, Ortigas Centre, Mandaluyong City41620
562878 SF CET-TIP  (10)   ’22Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Trafficking in Persons Cases9/19/2022-9/23/2022via Distance Learning183048
572881 SF RTD CC-B (1)   ’22Round Table Discussion on Issues Concerning Commercial Courts and Distribution of Benchbook for Commercial Courts9/30/2022Grand Hayatt Hotel, BGC, Taguig City61117
582882 SF IP-COL  (3)   ’22Colloquium on Intellectual Property for the Judiciary10/6/1922Dusit Thani Manila, Makati City122133
592886 SF HAGUE-PPIL  (3)   ’22HCCH Asia Pacific Week I Manila 202210/18/2022-10/20/2022Makati Diamond Residences, Makati City89132221
602891 SF CET-CIC  (51)   ’22Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children
(Asynchronous Sessions- 10/19-23/22)
10/24/2022-10/28/2022via Distance Learning144256
612894 SF OBET-JJ-TOT  (4)   ’22Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice Training of Trainers11/7/2022-11/9/2022Century Park Hotel, Manila81624
622895 SF DDL  (46)   ’22Seminar-Workshop on Dangerous Drugs Law11/9/2022-11/11/2022via Distance Learning6351114
632897 SF CET-TIP  (11)   ’22Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Trafficking in Persons Cases11/21/2022-11/25/2022via Distance Learning153449
642902 SF OBET-JJ  (8)   ’22Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice12/12/2022-12/15/2022via Distance Learning223860
652904 SF CC  (18)   ’22Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime
(Asynchronous Sessions- 12/1-15/22)
12/16/2022Marco Polo Hotel, Ortigas Center, Pasig City41115

SPECIAL LECTURE PROGRAM

 CODEDESCRIPTIONDATEVENUEGENDERTOTAL TPA
MF
662898 SL MetFPCL  (18)   ’2218th Metrobank Foundation Professorial Chair Lecture11/24/2022Supreme Court En Banc Session Hall, Supreme Court New Building, Padre Faura, Manila / via Distance Learning335487

MEDIATION PROGRAMS

 CODEDESCRIPTIONDATEVENUEGENDERTOTAL TPA
MF
672836  ADR JSCJ (34)   ’22Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills Based Course)3/21/2022-3/25/2022via Distance Learning242246
682844 TOT-ADR ERC  (10)   ’22Enhanced Refresher Course Training of Trainers4/28/2022-4/29/2022via Distance Learning3912
692849 ADR JSCJ  (39) 3  ’22Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills Based Course)5/24/2022-5/27/2022via Distance Learning301747
702858 ADR ERC  (11)   ’22Enhanced Refresher Course for Court Annexed Mediators (Skills Enhancement Course)6/27/2022-7/1/2022via Distance Learning312455
712860 ADR JSCJ  (40) 5  ’22Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills-Based Course)7/11/2022-7/15/2022via Distance Learning162743
722865 ADR ERC  (14) 8  ’22Enhanced Refresher Course for Court-Annexed Mediators (Skills Enhancement Course ) Batch 37/25/2022-7/29/2022via Distance Learning312657
732869 ADR ERC  (14) 7  ’22Enhanced Refresher Course for Court-Annexed Mediators (Skills Enhancement Course) Batch 28/15/2022-8/19/2022via Distance Learning321749
742874 ADR ERC  (15) 8  ’22Enhanced Refresher Course for Court-Annexed Mediators (Skills Enhancement Course) Batch 49/12/2022-9/16/2022via Distance Learning252449
752883 ADR ERC  (16-9)   ’22Enhanced Refresher Course for Court-Annexed Mediators (Skills Enhancement Course) Batch 510/10/2022-10/14/2022via Distance Learning271845
762892 ADR JSCJ  (41)   ’22Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills-Based Course)10/25/2022-10/28/2022via Distance Learning133245
772896 ADR ERC  (17) 11  ’22Enhanced Refresher Course for Court-Annexed Mediators (Skills Enhancement Course)11/14/2022-11/18/2022via Distance Leaning192241
782901 ADR JSCJ  (41) 5  ’22Judicial Settlement for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills-Based Course)12/5/2022-12/9/2022via Distance Learning152944
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA OF SEMINARS FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For Academic Year 2021
  • with allowance for duplication of participants
  • results include incumbent and recently retired/resigned/dismissed judges/lawyers
Type of Seminar  No. of Seminars
Conducted
Total No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
Total
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges5126167293
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Clerks of Court489110199
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys of the Court Attorneys of the Court of Appeals4157393550
Convention-Seminars450413641868
Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts3155234389
Pre-Judicature Program for Appellate Courts13128730
Special Focus Seminars34907114359862195
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (JDR)34066106
TOTAL58158027524688305630
SEX DISAGGREGAETD DATA OF SEMINARS FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
FOR ACADEMIC YEAR 2021
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges

 
DESCRIPTION DATE VENUE GENDER TOTAL 
M F
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges 4/19/2021-4/30/2021 via Distance Learning 20 19 39
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges 8/16/2021-8/20/2021 via Distance Learning 31 48 79
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges 9/6/2021-9/17/2021 via Distance Learning 33 50 83
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges 10/11/2021-10/22/2021 via Distance Learning 29 30 59
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Judges 12/6/2021-12/10/2021 via Distance Learning 13 20 33
126 167 293
Orientation and Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court (Lawyers only)
Orientation and Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court 2/1/2021-2/5/2021 via Distance Learning 11 29 40
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court 5/24/2021-5/28/2021 via Distance Learning 7 31 38
Orientation Seminar-Workhsop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court 8/23/2021-8/27/2021 via Distance Learning 62 26 88
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court 11/22/2021-11/26/2021 via Distance Learning 9 24 33
89 110 199
Continuing Legal Education for Court Attorneys
Continuing Legal Education for Court Attorneys of the Supreme Court (Batch 1) 6/28/2021-6/30/2021 via Distance Learning 64 144 208
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys of the Supreme Court (Batch 2) 8/11/2021-8/13/2021 via Distance Learning 57 144 201
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys of the Sandiganbayan 10/27/2021-10/29/2021 via Distance Learning 22 67 89
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys of the Court of Tax Appeals 12/1/2021-12/3/2021 via Distance Learning 14 38 52
157 393 550
Pre-Judicature Program (As Prescribed by Section 10, Republic Act No. 8557) (Judges & COC)
Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts 2/22/2021-3/5/2021 via Distance Learning 71 129 200
Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts 5/17/2021-5/28/2021 via Distance Learning 67 78 145
Pre-Judicature Program for Trial Courts 9/13/2021-10/1/2021 via Distance Learning 17 27 44
First Pre-Judicature Program for the Appellate Courts 10/25/2021-10/29/2021 via Distance Learning 11 19 30
166 253 419
CONVENTION SEMINARS
 DESCRIPTIONDATEVENUEGENDERTOTAL
MF 
  1.  
Convention and Seminar of the Philippine Women Judges Association (PWJA)6/2/2021-6/3/2021via Distance Learning0600600
  1.  
1st Virtual Annual Convention of the MetCJAP9/16/2021-9/17/2021via Distance Learning53139192
  1.  
1st Virtual Convention of the Philippine Judges Association9/29/2021-9/30/2021via Distance Learning367436803
  1.  
Virtual Convention of the Philippine Trial Judges League, Inc. (PTJLI)12/17/2021via Distance Learning84189273
    50413641868
SPECIAL FOCUS PROGRAMS
(SUMMARY OF JUDGES & COCs)
TPAsJUDGESCLERKS OF COURTCourt AttorneysProsecutorsPAO LawyersOther
Lawyers
TOTAL
MFMFMFMFMFMF  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence451628          1079 
Seminar on Judicial Integrity Board183239          422 
International Humanitarian Law Training for Court Attorneys of the Supreme Court    513      18 
Training on International Humanitarian Law (Training of Trainers)68          14 
Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime4748          95 
Seminar-Workshop on Intellectual Property Cases5961          120 
Seminar-Workshop on Intra-Corporate Controversies and FRIA Cases4943          92 
PJ365 Orientation Seminar for Lower Court Judges and Personnel1313          26 
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children1022712  1327199  119 
Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice817716        48 
Seminar-Workshop on Dangerous Drugs Law for Judges, Prosecutors and Law Enforcers1621    10    38 
Seminar on Election Laws6440          104 
Training Seminar-Workshop for Lawyers and Personnel of the Adjudication Services Division of the Philippine Competition Commission          5712 
Regional Roundtable: The Role of Justice Actors in the Fight Against SLAPPs in Southeast Asia13    0220  8 
TOTAL907114314285131429219572195 
SUMMARY OF PARTCIPANTS – SPECIAL FOCUS PROGRAMS

PARTICIPANTS

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

Judges

907

1143

2050

  Lawyers

Clerks of Court142842
Court Attorneys51318
Prosecutors142943
PAO Lawyers21930
Lawyers5712
 5986145
TOTAL96612292195

Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children (Lawyers)

Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children4/12/2021-4/16/2021via Distance Learning145
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children7/12/2021-7/16/2021via Distance Learning369
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children9/6/2021-9/10/2021via Distance Learning325
   71219

Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice (Lawyers)

Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice Training of Trainers8/16/2021via Distance Learning279
Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice8/16/2021-8/20/2021via Distance Learning257
Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice10/4/2021-10/8/2021via Distance Learning347
   71623
SPECIAL FOCUS PROGRAMS

Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence (Judges)

 DESCRIPTIONDATEVENUEGENDERTOTAL
MF
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence1/28/2021-1/29/2021via Distance Learning243155
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence2/19/2021via Distance Learning191534
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendements to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence5/20/2021-5/21/2021via Distance Learning242246
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence6/3/2021-6/4/2021via Distance Learning463985
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence6/17/2021-6/18/2021via Distance Learning Program3470104
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence7/15/2021-7/16/2021via Distance Learning5853111
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence7/29/2021-7/30/2021via Distance Learning5097147
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence8/12/2021-8/13/2021via Distance Learning5072122

 

  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence8/26/2021-8/27/2021via Distance Learning67117184
  1.  
Training Seminar on the 2019 Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure and Evidence9/23/2021-9/24/2021via Distance Learning79112191
 4516281079

Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board (Judges)

  1.  
Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board10/13/2021via Distance Learning6693159
  1.  
Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board11/5/2021via Distance Learning5976135
  1.  
Seminar on the Judicial Integrity Board12/16/2021via Distance Learning5870128
 183239422

Training on International Humanitarian Law (Training of Trainers) (Lawyers)

  1.  
Training on International Humanitarian Law (Training of Trainers)3/17/2021-3/23/2021via Distance Learning6814
  1.  
International Humanitarian Law Training for Court Attorneys of the Supreme Court6/14/2021-6/15/2021via Distance Learning51318
 112132

Seminar-Workshop on DangerousDrugs Law (Judges, Lawyers)

  1.  
Seminar-Workshop on DangerousDrugs Law for Judgs, Prosecutors and Law Enforcers of the Fourth Judicial Region3/23/2021-3/25/2021via Distance Learning473077

Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children (Judges, COC)

  1.  
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children4/12/2021-4/16/2021via Distance Learning174663
  1.  
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children7/12/2021-7/16/2021via Distance Learning226082
  1.  
Competency Enhancement Training in Handling Cases Involving Children9/6/2021-9/10/2021via Distance Learning315687

Regional Roundtable: The Role of Justice Actors in the Fight Against SLAPPs in Southeast Asia (Judges,      Lawyers)

  1.  
Regional Roundtable: The Role of Justice Actors in the Fight Against SLAPPs in Southeast Asia5/7/2021-5/8/2021via Distance Learning5914

Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime (Judges)

  1.  
Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime5/27/2021-5/28/2021via Distance Learning151126
  1.  
Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime7/1/2021-7/2/2021via Distance Learning141428
  1.  
Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime9/9/2021-9/10/2021via Distance Learning101020
  1.  
Seminar-Workshop for Judges on Cybercrime11/11/2021-11/12/2021via Distance Learning81321
 474895

Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice (Judges & COC)

  1.  
Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice Training of Trainers8/16/2021via Distance Learning112334
  1.  
Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice8/16/2021-8/20/2021via Distance Learning104353

 

  1.  
Outcome-Based Education Training on Juvenile Justice10/4/2021-10/8/2021via Distance Learning173451

PJ365 Orientation Seminar for Lower Court Judges and Court Personnel (Judges)

  1.  
PJ365 Orientation Seminar for Lower Court Judges and Court Personnel8/23/2021-8/24/2021via Distance Learning3990129

Seminar-Workshop on Intellectual Property Cases (Judges)

  1.  
Seminar-Workshop on Intellectual Property Cases for Newly-Appointed and Newly-Designated Special Commercial Court Judges10/22/2021via Distance Learning363268

 

  1.  
Colloquium on Intellectual Property for the Judiciary12/2/2021-12/3/2021via Distance Learning232952

Seminar-Workshop on Intra-Corporate Controversies and FRIA Cases (Judges)

  1.  
Seminar-Workshop on Intra-Corporate Controversies and FRIA Cases for Newly-Appointed and Newly-Designated Special Commercial Court Judges10/27/2021-10/28/2021via Distance Learning372966

 

  1.  
Roundtable Discussion on Financial Rehabilitation and Insolvency Act (FRIA)11/26/2021via Distance Learning121426

Seminar on Election Laws (Judges)

  1.  
Seminar on Election Laws12/9/2021-12/10/2021via Distance Learning6440104

Training Seminar-Workshop for Lawyers and Personnel of the Adjudication Services Division of the   Philippine Competition Commission (PCC Lawyers)

  1.  
Training Seminar-Workshop for Lawyers and Personnel of the Adjudication Services Division of the Philippine Competition Commission12/13/2021-12/15/2021via Distance Learning101222

Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills-Based Course) (Judges)

Trainers’ Training on the Delivery of JDR Training5/6/2021-5/7/2021via Distance Learning61319
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution (Skills-Based Course)6/1/2021-6/4/2021via Distance Learning14620
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on Judicial Dispute Resolution12/14/2021-12/17/2021via Distance Learning204767
 4066106
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA OF SEMINARS FOR JUDGES and LAWYERS
Academic Year 2020
GENERAL SUMMARY
  • with allowance for duplication of participants
  • results include incumbent and recently retired/resigned/dismissed judges/lawyers
  • ONLY MALE AND FEMALE JUDGES AND LAWYERS ARE INCLUDED IN THE COUNT, PER LETTER FROM SC-PIO dated August 20, 2021  (meaning non-lawyer court personnel trained were not included in the count)
Type of Seminar  No. of Seminars
Conducted
Total No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
Total
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges4112170282
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Clerks of Court1113849
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys of the Court Attorneys of the Court of Appeals1254368
Convention-Seminars2157832989
Pre-Judicature Program1305282
Special Focus Seminars226266741733501823
Validation Workshop for the Refresher/Advanced Course on Judicial Dispute Resolution (JDR)14711
TOTAL3289916832394833304
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA OF SEMINARS FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For Academic Year 2019

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* results include incumbent and recently retired/resigned/dismissed judges/lawyers

Type of Seminar No. of Seminars
Conducted
Total No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
Total
MaleFemaleMaleFemale 
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges4107112219
Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice Executive Judges2485199
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Clerks of Court347132179
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys of the Supreme Court7142376518
Career Enhancement Program for RTC Clerks of Court2  5198149
Convention-Seminars550494024701538
Pre-Judicature Program4  68134202
Special Focus Seminars638379013213342393
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on JDR48091  171
Orientation of Clerks of Court and Branch Clerks of Court and Law Pracitioners on Judicial Dispute Resolution79394187
Orientation Conference with Stakeholders on Court-Annexed Mediation14211724
Pre-Internship Orientatiom and Meeting with Judges, Clerks of Court, Branch Clerks of Court, Mediation Trainees, and PMC Unit Satff33229102495
TOTAL1051612212676712695774
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA OF SEMINARS FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For Academic Year 2018

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* results include incumbent and recently retired/resigned/dismissed judges/lawyers

Type of Seminar No. of SeminarsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
Total Participants
MaleFemaleMaleFemale 
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges32956  85
Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice Executive Judges12223  45
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Clerks of Court2  48102150
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys of the Supreme Court3  91216307
Career Enhancement Program for RTC Clerks of Court6  129296425
Convention-Seminars54451029902701834
Pre-Judicature Program4  81134215
Special Focus Seminars5510551050120212584565
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on JDR410686  192
Orientation Conference with Stakeholders on Court-Annexed Mediation2911192362
Pre-Internship Orientatiom and Meeting with Judges, Clerks of Court, Branch Clerks of Court, Mediation Trainees, and PMC Unit Satff3171412447
TOTAL8816832269167223037927

 

SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA OF SEMINARS FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For Academic Year 2017

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* results include incumbent and recently retired/resigned/dismissed judges/lawyers

Type of Seminar  No. of SeminarsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
Total Participants
MaleFemaleMaleFemale 
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges370100  170
Judicial Career Enhancement Program for First Level Court Judges13522  57
Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice Executive Judges38267  149
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Clerks of Court4  65182247
Convention-Seminars4470732  1202
Career Enhancement Program for RTC Clerks of Court3  40154194
Pre-Judicature Program3  5465119
Special Focus Seminars5310111018176122676057
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on JDR36160  121
Orientation Conference with Stakeholders on Court-Annexed Mediation525168481206
Pre-Internship Orientatiom and Meeting with Judges, Clerks of Court, Branch Clerks of Court, Mediation Trainees, and PMC Unit Satff291272856
TOTAL8417632027201127778578
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA OF SEMINARS FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For Academic Year 2016

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* results include incumbent and recently retired/resigned/dismissed judges/lawyers

 Type of Seminar No. of SeminarsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers (COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)Total Participants
MaleFemaleMaleFemale 
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges36291  153
Judicial Career Enhancement Program for Judges4120134  254
Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice Executive Judges13231  63
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Clerks of Court2  134962
Convention-Seminars4  8474301,277
Career Enhancement Program for Lawyers-Clerks of Court2  4887135
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys3  49109158
Pre-Judicature Program4  7094164
Special Focus Seminars646665871731881,614
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on JDR595106  201
Orientation of Clerks of Court and Branch Clerks of Court on JDR2  91827
Orientation of Public Prosecutors, Public Attorneys, and Law Practitioners on JDR2  6814
Pre-Internship Orientation and Meeting with judges, Clerks of court, Branch Clerks of Court, Mediation Trainees, and PMC Unit Staff6271461158
TOTAL 1,0029631,2219944,180

 

SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2015
Training Programs and ActivitiesNumber  of TPAs ConductedMale ParticipantsFemale ParticipantsTotal Number of Participants
Core Programs381,0951,2392,334
Special Focus Programs622,5431,7404,283
FGDs and RTDs12142133275
Convention‐Seminars81,6441,2772,921
Special Lectures3318467787
Other Training Programs and Activities1454691
TOTAL1245,7874,90210,689

The Academy was able to involve the following participants in its TPAs:

Breakdown of Participants
 MaleFemaleTOTAL MALE‐FEMALETOTAL PARTICIPANTS
Justices41185959
Judges1,4481,7193,1673,167
Clerks of CourtLawyers3626339951,126
Non‐lawyers4388131
Court Attorneys317420737737
Legal Researchers3978117117
Sheriffs8741361,0101,010
Process Servers40879487487
Other Lower Court PersonnelLawyers81119272
Non‐lawyers30223253
SC and PHILJA Officials19183737
SC, CA, CTA and
Sandiganbayan Personnel
Lawyers4788135225
Non‐lawyers385290
PHILJA Corps of Professors4599
Non‐court ParticipantsLawyers3172926093,240
Non‐lawyers1,7069252,631
PJP Participants69101170170
Foreign Delegates13122525
ObserversLawyers1348
Non‐lawyers314
TOTAL5,7874,90210,689
Judges and Lawyers Participants
Judges Participants
 MaleFemaleTOTAL
Judges1,4481,7193,167
Lawyers Participants
Clerks of Court (Lawyers)362633995
Court Attorneys317420737
Other Lower Court Personnel (Lawyers)81119
SC, CA, CTA and Sandiganbayan Personnel (Lawyers)4788135
Non‐court Participants (Lawyers)317292609
PJP Participants69101170
Observers (Lawyers)134
Total Lawyers Participants1,1211,5482,669
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2014
Gender Disaggregated Data
 MaleFemaleTOTAL
Core programs6136281241
Special focus programs209312773370
FGD and RTDs141110251
Convention‐Seminars145542095664
Special lectures221322543
Other TPAs287359646
TOTAL4810690511,715
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2013

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers

Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
Total Number of Trained Participants
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges595115  210
Judicial Career Enhancement program for Judges7249137  386
Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice Executive Judges24611  57
Convention-Seminars115646772091201570
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys3  43108151
Pre-Judicature Program4  109153262
Special Focus Seminars551054746124210004042
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on JDR38686  172
Orientation of Clerks of Court and Branch Clerks of Court on JDR4  58113171
Orientation of Public Prosecutors, Public Attorneys, and Law Practitioners on JDR4  107100207
TOTAL9820941772176815947228
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2012

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers
* COCs > Clerks of Courts
* BCOCs > Branch Clerks of Court

Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
 
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges37769  146
Judicial Career Enhancement program for Judges6198146  344
Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice Executive Judges36853  121
Convention-Seminars4456703  1,159
Career Enhancement Programs for Clerks of Court10  206388594
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys5  176345521
Pre-Judicature Program3  62109171
Founding Chancellor JAMH Award for Outstanding Professorial Lecturer123172769136
Special Focus Seminars721,0076482563012,212
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on JDR37666  142
Orientation of Clerks of Court and Branch Clerks of Court on JDR2  54131185
Orientation of Public Prosecutors, Public Attorneys, and Law Practitioners on JDR2  6738105
Training of Trainers on JDR1913  22
TOTAL1151,9141,7158481,3815,858

 

SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2011

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers
* COCs > Clerks of Courts
* BCOCs > Branch Clerks of Court

DATA FOR 2011
Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsGender Distribution of ParticipantsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys)
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
1. Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges24150  91
2. Orientation for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court2  163450
3. Pre-Judicature Program3  5457111
4. Convention-Seminars56396661232411,669
5. Career Enhancement Programs for Clerks of Court4  4776123
6. SPECIAL FOCUS SEMINAR571,1116724085292,720
TOTAL731,7911,3886489374,764
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2010

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers
* COCs > Clerks of Courts
* BCOCs > Branch Clerks of Court

Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
 
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges24941  91
Convention-Seminars4420670  1,090
Continuing Legal Education Program for Court Attorneys6  114317431
Pre-Judicature Program3  6361124
Special Focus Seminars611,5419453203853,191
Judicial Settlement Conference for Judges on JDR791101  192
Orientation of Clerks of Court and Branch Clerks of Court on JDR1  444488
TOTAL842,1011,7575418075,206

 

SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2009

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers
* COCs > Clerks of Courts
* BCOCs > Branch Clerks of Court

 DATA FOR 2009
Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsGender Distribution of ParticipantsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys/Non-Court)
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges35838  96
Orientation for Newly Appointed Clerks of Court6  60105165
Regional Judicial Career Enhancement Programs (RJCEPs)2130124  254
Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice-Executive Judges515062  212
Pre-Judicature Programs2  454287
Convention-Seminars56847341072471,772
Special Focus Seminars347273072652431,542
TOTAL571,7491,2654776374,128
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2008

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers
* COCs > Clerks of Courts
* BCOCs > Branch Clerks of Court

DATA FOR 2008
Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsGender Distribution of ParticipantsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys)
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
1. Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges34035  75
2. Regional Judicial Career Enhancement Programs (RJCEPs)10692292  984
3. Convention-Seminars105276401223301,619
4. Special Focus Seminars1017503441383011,533
5. Orientation for Newly-Appointed CoCs/BCoCs4  4293141
TOTAL1282,0091,3113087244,352

 

SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2007

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers
* COCs > Clerks of Courts
* BCOCs > Branch Clerks of Court

 DATA FOR 2007
Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsGender Distribution of ParticipantsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys)
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
1. Regional Judicial Career Enhancement Programs (RJCEPs)320495  299
2. Seminar-Workshop for Executive Judges and Vice-Executive Judges517490  264
3. Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges7196106  302
4. Orientation for Newly-Appointed CoCs/BCoCs5  102134236
5. Special Focus Seminars439544552211451,775
6. Career Enhancement Programs for Court Attorneys2  316596
7. Convention-Seminars57456691342321,780
8. Mediation Programs169343228126490
TOTAL862,3661,4587167025,242
SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR JUDGES AND LAWYERS
For the Academic Year 2006

* with allowance for duplication of participants
* pax composed of incumbent and retired/resigned judges/lawyers
* COCs > Clerks of Courts
* BCOCs > Branch Clerks of Court

DATA FOR 2006
Type of SeminarNo. of SeminarsGender Distribution of ParticipantsTotal No. of Participants
JudgesLawyers
(COCs/BCOCs, Court Attorneys)
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
1. Regional Judicial Career Enhancement Programs (RJCEPs)5346176102186810
2. Orientation Seminar-Workshop for Newly-Appointed Judges512871  199
3. Orientation for Newly-Appointed CoCs/BCoCs2  223860
4. Special Focus Seminars222532001428495
5. Career Enhancement Programs for Court Attorneys4  172375547
6. Roundtable Discussions (RTD)2315  18
7. Convention-Seminars4593579 1531,172
8. Mediation Programs16259141824635
9. PHILJAs Corporate Planning1  3 7
TOTAL611,5821,1827167843,943

 

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Privacy Notice for the Supreme Court website

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1987Constitution

The Supreme Court Under
the 1987 Constitution

As in the 1935 and 1973 Constitutions, the 1987 Constitution provides that “[t]he judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law.” (Art. VII, Sec. 1). The exercise of judicial power is shared by the Supreme Court with all lower courts, but it is only the Supreme Court’s decisions that are vested with precedential value or doctrinal authority, as its interpretations of the Constitution and the laws are final and beyond review by any other branch of government.

Unlike the 1935 and 1973 Constitutions, however, the 1987 Constitution defines the concept of judicial power. Under paragraph 2 of Section 1, Article VIII, “judicial power” includes not only the “duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable” but also “to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government.” This latter provision dilutes the effectivity of the “political question” doctrine which places specific questions best submitted to the political wisdom of the people beyond the review of the courts.

Building on previous experiences under former Constitutions, the 1987 Constitution provides for specific safeguards to ensure the independence of the Judiciary. These are found in the following provisions:

    • The grant to the Judiciary of fiscal autonomy. “Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year, and, after approval, shall be automatically and regularly released.” (Art. VIII, Sec. 3).
    • The grant to the Chief Justice of authority to augment any item in the general appropriation law for the Judiciary from savings in other items of said appropriation as authorized by law. (Art. VI, Sec. 25[5])
    • The removal from Congress of the power to deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 of Article VIII.
    • The grant to the Court of the power to appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law (Art. VIII, Sec. 5 [6])
    • The removal from the Commission of Appointments of the power to confirm appointments of justices and judges (Art. VIII, Sec. 8)
    • The removal from Congress of the power to reduce the compensation or salaries of the Justices and judges during their continuance in office. (Art. VIII, Sec. 10)
    • The prohibition against the removal of judges through legislative reorganization by providing that “(n)o law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its members. (Art. VIII, Sec. 2)
    • The grant of sole authority to the Supreme Court to order the temporary detail of judges. (Art. VIII, Sec. 5[3])
    • The grant of sole authority to the Supreme Court to promulgate rules of procedure for the courts. (Art. VIII, Sec. 5[5])
    • The prohibition against designating members of the Judiciary to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative function. (Art. VIII, Sec. 12)
    • The grant of administrative supervision over the lower courts and its personnel in the Supreme Court. (Art. VIII, Sec. 6)

The Supreme Court under the present Constitution is composed of a Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. The members of the Court are appointed by the President from a list, prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council, of at least three nominees for every vacancy. This new process is intended to “de-politicize” the courts of justice, ensure the choice of competent judges, and fill existing vacancies without undue delay.

RevolutionaryGovernment

The Supreme Court Under
the Revolutionary Government

Shortly after assuming office as the seventh President of the Republic of the Philippines after the successful People Power Revolution, then President Corazon C. Aquino declared the existence of a revolutionary government under Proclamation No. 1 dated February 25, 1986. Among the more significant portions of this Proclamation was an instruction for “all appointive officials to submit their courtesy resignations beginning with the members of the Supreme Court.” The call was unprecedented, considering the separation of powers that the previous Constitutions had always ordained, but understandable considering the revolutionary nature of the post-People Power government. Heeding the call, the members of the Judiciary—from the Supreme Court to the Municipal Circuit Courts—placed their offices at the disposal of the President and submitted their resignations. President Corazon C, Aquino proceeded to reorganize the entire Court, appointing all 15 members.

On March 25, 1986, President Corazon Aquino, through Proclamation No. 3, also abolished the 1973 Constitution and put in place a Provisional “Freedom” Constitution. Under Article I, Section 2 of the Freedom Constitution, the provisions of the 1973 Constitution on the judiciary were adopted insofar as they were not inconsistent with Proclamation No. 3.

Article V of Proclamation No. 3 provided for the convening of a Constitutional Commission composed of 50 appointive members to draft a new constitution; this would be implemented by Proclamation No. 9. Under the leadership of retired SC Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma as its President, the Constitutional Commission of 1986 submitted its output of to the people for ratification.

By a vote of 76.30%, the Filipino people then ratified the Constitution submitted to them in a national plebiscite on February 2, 1987.

President Aquino, other civilian officials, and members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, upon the announcement of the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, swore allegiance to the new charter on February 11, 1987 thereby putting an end to the revolutionary government.

1973

The Supreme Court Under
the 1973 Constitution

The declaration of Martial Law through Proclamation No. 1081 by former President Ferdinand E, Marcos in 1972 brought about the transition from the 1935 Constitution to the 1973 Constitution. This transition had implications on the Court’s composition and functions.

This period also brought in many legal issues of transcendental importance and consequence. Among these were the legality of the ratification of a new Constitution, the assumption of the totality of government authority by President Marcos, and the power to review the factual basis for a declaration of Martial Law by the Chief Executive, among others. Also writ large during this period was the relationship between the Court and the Chief Executive who, under Amendment No. 6 to the 1973 Constitution, had assumed legislative powers even while an elected legislative body continued to function.

The 1973 Constitution increased the number of the members of the Supreme Court from 11 to 15, with a Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. The Justices of the Court were appointed by the President alone, without the consent, approval, or recommendation of any other body or officials.

Ayuntamiento

The Supreme Court of
the Second Republic

Following liberation from the Japanese occupation at the end of the Second World War and the Philippines’ subsequent independence from the United States, Republic Act No. 296 or the Judiciary Act of 1948 was enacted. This law grouped together the cases over which the Supreme Court could exercise exclusive jurisdiction for review on appeal, certiorari, or writ of error.

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The Supreme Court During
the Commonwealth

Following the ratification of the 1935 Philippine Constitution in a plebiscite, the principle of separation of powers was adopted, not by express and specific provision to that effect, but by actual division of powers of the government—executive, legislative, and judicial—in different articles of the 1935 Constitution.

As in the United States, the judicial power was vested by the 1935 Constitution “in one Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as may be established by law.” It devolved on the Judiciary to determine whether the acts of the other two departments were in harmony with the fundamental law.

The Court during the Commonwealth was composed of “a Chief Justice and ten Associate Justices, and may sit en banc or in two divisions, unless otherwise provided by law.”

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The Establishment of
the Supreme Court of the Philippines

On June 11, 1901, the Second Philippine Commission passed Act No. 136 entitled “An Act Providing for the Organization of Courts in the Philippine Islands” formally establishing the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands and creating Courts of First Instance and Justices of the Peace Courts throughout the land. The judicial organization established by the Act was conceived by the American lawyers in the Philippine Commission, with its basic structures patterned after similar organizations in the United States.

The Supreme Court created under the Act was composed of a Chief Justice and six Judges. Five members of the Court could form a quorum, and the concurrence of at least four members was necessary to pronounce a judgment.

Act No. 136 abolished the Audiencia established under General Order No. 20 and declared that the Supreme Court created by the Act be substituted in its place. This effectively severed any nexus between the present Supreme Court and the Audiencia.

The Anglo-American legal system under which the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands was expected to operate was entirely different from the old Spanish system that Filipinos were familiar with. Adjustments had to be made; hence, the decisions of the Supreme Court during its early years reflected a blend of both the Anglo-American and Spanish systems. The jurisprudence was a gentle transition from the old order to the new.

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The Judicial System During
the American Occupation

After Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War in the late 1890s, The subsequent occupation by the Americans of the Philippine Islands paved the way for considerable changes in the control, disposition, and governance of the Islands.

The judicial system established during the regime of the military government functioned as an instrument of the executive—not of the judiciary—as an independent and separate branch of government. Secretary of State John Hay, on May 12, 1899, proposed a plan for a colonial government of the Philippine Islands which would give Filipinos the largest measure of self-government. The plan contemplated an independent judiciary manned by judges chosen from qualified locals and Americans.

On May 29, 1899, General Elwell Stephen Otis, Military Governor for the Philippines, issued General Order No. 20, reestablishing the Audiencia Teritorial de Manila which was to apply Spanish laws and jurisprudence recognized by the American military governor as continuing in force.

The Audiencia was composed of a presiding officer and eight members organized into two divisions: the sala de lo civil or the civil branch, and the sala de lo criminal or the criminal branch.

It was General Otis himself who personally selected the first appointees to the Audiencia. Cayetano L. Arellano was appointed President (equivalent to Chief Justice) of the Court, with Manuel Araullo as president of the sala de lo civil and Raymundo Melliza as president of the salo de lo criminal. Gregorio Araneta and Lt. Col. E.H. Crowder were appointed associate justices of the civil branch while Ambrosio Rianzares, Julio Llorente, Major R.W. Young, and Captain W.E. Brikhimer were designated associate justices of the criminal branch. Thus, the reestablished Audiencia became the first agency of the new insular government where Filipinos were appointed side by side with Americans.

SpanishRegime

The Judicial System Under
the Spanish Regime

During the early Spanish occupation, King Philip II established the Real Audiencia de Manila which was given not only judicial but legislative, executive, advisory, and administrative functions as well. Composed of the incumbent governor general as the presidente (presiding officer), four oidores (equivalent to associate justices), an asesor (legal adviser), an alguacil mayor (chief constable), among other officials, the Real Audiencia de Manila was both a trial and appellate court. It had exclusive original, concurrent original, and exclusive appellate jurisdictions.

Initially, the Audiencia was given a non-judicial role in the colonial administration, to deal with unforeseen problems within the territory that arose from time to time—it was given the power to supervise certain phases of ecclesiastical affairs as well as regulatory functions, such as fixing of prices at which merchants could sell their commodities. Likewise, the Audiencia had executive functions, like the allotment of lands to the settlers of newly established pueblos. However, by 1861, the Audiencia had ceased to perform these executive and administrative functions and had been restricted to the administration of justice.

When the Audiencia Territorial de Cebu was established in 1886, the name of the Real Audiencia de Manila was changed to Audiencia Territorial de Manila.

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The Judicial System of the
Pre-Colonization Filipinos

When the Spanish colonizers first arrived in the Philippine archipelago, they found the indigenous Filipinos without any written laws. The laws enforced were mainly derived from customs, usages, and tradition. These laws were believed to be God-given and were orally transmitted from generation to generation.

A remarkable feature of these customs and traditions was that they were found to be very similar to one another notwithstanding that they were observed in widely dispersed islands of the archipelago. There were no judges and lawyers who were trained formally in the law, although there were elders who devoted time to the study of the customs, usages, and traditions of their tribes to qualify them as consultants or advisers on these matters.

The unit of government of the indigenous Filipinos was the barangay, which was a family-based community of 30 to 100 families, occupying a pook (“locality” or “area”) headed by a chieftain called datu who exercised all functions of government—executive, legislative, and judicial—a barangay was not only a political but a social and an economic organization. In the exercise of his judicial authority, the datu acted as a judge (hukom) in settling disputes and deciding cases in his barangay.

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