Welcome to the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Welcome to the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Welcome to the Supreme Court of the Philippines
READ: Infographics on Bar Bulletin No. 2-2023 Re: Application Requirements for the 2023 Bar Examinations sc.judiciary.gov.ph/files/bar-2023 #WeCanDoIt #HernanDoIt #Bar2023

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News and Announcements
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News and Announcements

SC News Online

Press Releases

Tweets by @SCPh_PIO

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Benchmark Magazine

Bids and Awards

Bids and Awards Committee
for Goods and Services

Bids and Awards
Committee
for Halls of
Justice

Bids and Awards Committee for
Infrastructure Projects

Bids and Awards Committee for Consultancy Services

Bids and Awards Committee for New Supreme Court Complex

SC Special Canteen
Committee

Request for
Quotations

Purchase
Orders

Bids and Awards Committee
for Goods and Services

Bids and Awards
Committee
for Halls of
Justice

Bids and Awards Committee for
Infrastructure Projects

Bids and Awards Committee for Consultancy Services

Bids and Awards Committee for New Supreme Court Complex

SC Special Canteen
Committee

Request for
Quotations

Purchase
Orders

Bids and Awards Committee for the Construction of the Manila Hall of Justice & the Court of Appeals Buildings in Cebu & Cagayan De Oro

Bids and Awards Committee for the Construction of the Manila Hall of Justice & the Court of Appeals Buildings in Cebu & Cagayan De Oro

Bids and Awards Committee
for Goods and Services

Bids and Awards Committee
for Halls of Justice

Bids and Awards Committee for
Infrastructure Projects

Bids and Awards Committee for Consultancy Services

Bids and Awards Committee for New Supreme Court Complex

SC Special Canteen
Committee

Request for
Quotations

Purchase
Orders

Bids and Awards Committee for the Construction of the Manila Hall of Justice & the Court of Appeals Buildings in Cebu & Cagayan De Oro

Email Us

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Please read our Privacy Notice for the terms on the collection of your personal information.

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Tweets by @SCPh_PIO

[custom-twitter-feeds]

Benchmark Magazine

Bids and Awards

Bids and Awards Committee
for Goods and Services

Bids and Awards
Committee
for Halls of
Justice

Bids and Awards Committee for
Infrastructure Projects

Bids and Awards Committee for Consultancy Services

Bids and Awards Committee for New Supreme Court Complex

SC Special Canteen
Committee

Request for
Quotations

Purchase
Orders

Bids and Awards Committee
for Goods and Services

Bids and Awards
Committee
for Halls of
Justice

Bids and Awards Committee for
Infrastructure Projects

Bids and Awards Committee for Consultancy Services

Bids and Awards Committee for New Supreme Court Complex

SC Special Canteen
Committee

Request for
Quotations

Purchase
Orders

Bids and Awards Committee for the Construction of the Manila Hall of Justice & the Court of Appeals Buildings in Cebu & Cagayan De Oro

Bids and Awards Committee for the Construction of the Manila Hall of Justice & the Court of Appeals Buildings in Cebu & Cagayan De Oro

Bids and Awards Committee
for Goods and Services

Bids and Awards Committee
for Halls of Justice

Bids and Awards Committee for
Infrastructure Projects

Bids and Awards Committee for Consultancy Services

Bids and Awards Committee for New Supreme Court Complex

SC Special Canteen
Committee

Request for
Quotations

Purchase
Orders

Bids and Awards Committee for the Construction of the Manila Hall of Justice & the Court of Appeals Buildings in Cebu & Cagayan De Oro

Email Us

Please include your name, contact number, email address, and the subject in your email.

Please read our Privacy Notice for the terms on the collection of your personal information.

[formidable id=1]

By using this Query Form, you agree to the collection of personal data. For more information, you may refer to our Privacy Notice.

Procurement of a Service Provider of Photocopier Machines for the Supreme Court for Three (3) Years.

Procurement of Various Office Supplies for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Procurement Monitoring Report 2023

Procurement of Storage and Warehousing Services for the Supreme Court for One (1) Year.

Procurement for the Supply, Delivery and Installation of Various Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Equipment for the First and Second Level Courts

Procurement of Various Information and Communications Technology Equipment for the Different Offices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of a Contractor for Windows Replacement in the Office of the Senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Examination Software Licenses for the 2024 Special Shari’ah Bar Examinations

Procurement of One (1) Service Vehicle for the Official Use of the Senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Comprehensive Health Care Plan for the Judiciary for One (1) Year

Procurement of Criminal and Civil Docket Books for the Official Use of Various Trial Courts in the National Capital Region and Provinces

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Receiving Machines for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Dry Seal for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Procurement of Various ICT Equipment for the Use of Management Information Systems Office (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Three (3) Service Vehicles for the Official Use of the Justices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Jackets for the 2023 Supreme Court Christmas Celebration

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Eight (8) Service Vehicles for the Official Use of the Justices of the Supreme Court

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Service Vehicles for the Official Use of Chiefs of Offices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Service Vehicles for the Official Use of the Justices of the Supreme Court

Procurement for the Supply, Delivery, Cabling and Installation of Time Recorder Devices for the Official Use of the Supreme Court (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Service Provider for the Printing of the 2024 Court Calendar

Procurement of One (1) Twelve (12)-Seater Passenger Van for the Philippine Mediation Center (Re-bidding)

Procurement of One (1) Motor Vehicle for the Use of the Financial Management Office, Office of the Court Administrator (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer for the Official Use of the Supreme Court (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Automatic Paper Cutting Machine for the Official Use of the Printing Services

Procurement Monitoring Report as of June 30, 2023

Procurement of Judicial Gowns for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Procurement of Various Electric Fans for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Procurement of Various Monoblock Chairs for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Procurement for the Refilling of FM 200 Cylinders for the Fire Protection System of the Library Services

Procurement for the Supply and Installation of Modular Cubicles at the Lawyer’s Area at the Office of an Associate Justice in the Supreme Court New Building

Procurement for the Replacement of Windows at the Office of an Associate Justice in the Supreme Court New Annex Building

Procurement of Air-Conditioning Units for the Different Offices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Toner Cartridges for Use of the Different Offices of the Supreme Court for the 1st Semester for FY 2023

Negotiated Procurement of Supply and Delivery of Two (2) Utility Vehicles for the Official Use of the Regular Members of the Judicial Integrity Board

Procurement of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer for the Official Use of the Supreme Court

Procurement of One (1) Motor Vehicle for the Use of the Financial Management Office, Office of the Court Administrator

Procurement of One (1) Twelve (12)-Seater Passenger Van for the Philippine Mediation Center

Procurement of Various ICT Equipment for the Use of Management Information Systems Office

Procurement of Service Vehicles for the Official Use of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court (Three [3] Units of Sport Utility Vehicles

Procurement of Various Office Supplies for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer for the Official Use of the Supreme Court

Procurement of One (1) Service Vehicle for the Official Use of the Third Regular Member of the Judicial Integrity Board

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement for the Supply, Delivery, Cabling and Installation of Time Recorder Devices for the Use of the Supreme Court

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Enterprise Wireless Network Connectivity

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of One (1) Service Vehicle for the Official Use of the Philippine Judicial Academy Vice-Chancellor

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of One (1) Digital Production Printer, Banner Type, for the Official Use of the Printing Services (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Service Vehicles for the Official Use of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court (Three [3] Units of Sport Utility Vehicles)

Procurement Monitoring Report (2nd Semester)

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Preventive Maintenance Service and Repair for All Air-Conditioning Units at the Supreme Court, Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Office (MCLEO) and Philippine Judicial Academy (PhilJA) Training Center, for Two (2) Years

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Various Office Supplies for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Procurement of Comprehensive Health Care Plan to All Lower Courts Personnel of the 1st and 2nd Level including Shari’a Courts

Procurement of Two (2) Utility Vehicles for the Official Use of the Regular Members of the Judicial Integrity Board (Re-bidding)

Procurement of One (1) Thermal Computer to Plate Machine for the Official Use of the Supreme Court

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Oracle Database Enterprise Edition for the Official Use of the Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Office

Procurement of Freight Forwarding Services to Various Trial Courts Located in the National Capital Region and Provinces by Private Courier for Two (2) Years (Re-bidding)

Procurement of One (1) Unit Passenger / Utility Van for Hauling and Deliveries for the Lower Courts (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Laptop and Desktop Computers for Use of Various Offices of the Philippine Judicial Academy (ITB No. 2022-13)

Procurement of External Hard Drives for the Official Use of the Lower Courts in the National Capital Region and Provinces (ITB No. 2022-14)

Procurement of Janitorial and Sanitation Services for the Supreme Court for Two (2) Years (Re-bidding) (ITB No. 2022-17)

Procurement of Low Code of the Supreme Court (ITB No. 2022-16)

Procurement of Service Vehicles for the Official Use of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Service Provider for the Printing of the 2023 Court Calendar

Procurement of One (1) Digital Production Printer, Banner Type, for the Official Use of the Printing Services

Procurement of One (1) Van as Service Vehicle and One (1) Sports Utility Vehicle as Back-Up Vehicle for the Official Use of the Chief Justice

Procurement of Digital Voice Recorders for the Official Use of Various Trial Courts

Procurement of Toner Cartridges for Issuance to the Lower Courts

Procurement of Laptop Computers for the Use of Various Offices of the Philippine Judicial Academy (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Two (2) Units of Utility Vehicle Vans, 15-Seater, for the General Use of the Philippine Judicial Academy

Procurement of Two (2) Utility Vehicles for the Official Use of the Regular Members of the Judicial Integrity Board

Procurement for the Supply and Installation of Air Conditioning Units for Various Offices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Janitorial and Sanitation Services for the Supreme Court for Two (2) Years (Re-bidding)

Procurement of Low-Code Development Platform for the Supreme Court

Procurement of One (1) Unit Passenger/Utility Van for Hauling and Deliveries for the Lower Courts

2022 Procurement Monitoring Report (1st Semester)

Procurement of Laptop and Desktop
Computers for Use of Various
Offices of the Philippine Judicial
Academy

Procurement of External Hard Drives for
the Official Use of the Lower Courts in
the National Capital Region and
Provinces

Procurement of Various Office Supplies for the Official Use of the Lower Courts

Procurement of Freight Forwarding
Services to Various Trial Courts Located
in the National Capital Region and
Provinces by Private Courier for Two (2)
Years

Procurement of Bar Examinations Software Licenses for the 2022 and 2023 Digitalized and Regionalized Bar Examination

Philippine Judicial Academy Food and Beverage Concession

Procurement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Equipment for Various Offices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Five (5)-Bay Compactor for the Official Use of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Comprehensive Maintenance Services for the Judiciary Data Center (JDC) and Disaster Recovery Site (DRS) of the Supreme Court Including Replacement of its Key Components.

Procurement of One (1) Semi-Automatic Book Sewing Machine for the Official Use of the Printing Services

Procurement of Direct Internet
Connectivity and ICT Network
Security Systems for the Quezon City
Hall of Justice

Supply and Delivery of Various Books for the Official Use of the Regional Trial Courts in Provinces Procured Thru Direct Contracting

Invitation to Bid No. 2022-02 Procurement of Desktop Computers and Printers for the Official Use of the Supreme Court

PROCUREMENT OF LAPTOP COMPUTERS FOR THE USE OF VARIOUS OFFICES OF THE PHILIPPINE JUDICIAL ACADEMY

PROCUREMENT OF VARIOUS OFFICE SUPPLIES FOR THE OFFICIAL USE OF THE LOWER COURTS

PROCUREMENT OF A TWO (2)-YEAR DEDICATED FIBER OPTIC 100 Mbps INTERNET SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE WITH BANDWIDTH ON-DEMAND OPTION FOR THE PHILJA TRAINING CENTER

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Janitorial and Sanitation Services for the Supreme Court for Two (2) Years

Procurement of Desktop Computers and Printers for the Official Use of the Supreme Court

2021 Procurement Monitoring Report (2nd Semester)

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Three (3) Units of Motor Vehicles for the Official Use of the Supreme Court (re-bidding)

Procurement of Air Conditioning Units for Various Offices of the Supreme Court

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Comprehensive Maintenance Services for the Judiciary Data Center (JDC) and Disaster Recovery Site (DRS) of the Supreme Court Including Replacement of its Key Components

Invitation to Bid for the Procuement of One (1) Semi-Automatic Book Sewing Machine for the Official Use of the Printing Services

Invitation to Foreign Suppliers, Manufacturers or Contractors to Submit Manifestation of Intention to Participate for the Project:
Procurement of Additional Software License for the Official Use in the 2021 Bar Examinations
(2,000 Examsoft Software [Examplify Licenses])

Procurement of Five (5) Service Motor Vehicles for the Official Use of the Judicial Integrity Board – Lot 2: Three [3] Units of Sports Utility Vehicle (re-bidding)

Procurement for the Replacement and
Upgrade of Existing Old Elevators at the
Supreme Court Main Building, New Main
Building and New Annex Building

Invitation to Foreign Suppliers, Manufacturers or Contractors to Submit Manifestation of Intention to Participate for the Project: Procurement of Additional Software License for the Official Use in the 2021 Bar Examinations

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Service Provider for the Printing of the 2022 Court Calendar

Procurement of Two (2) Units of Utility Vehicle Van, 15-Seater, for the General Use of the Philippine Judicial Academy

Procurement of Multi-Purpose Service Vehicle for the Official Use of the Management Information Systems Office

Procurement of Three (3) Units of Motor Vehicles for the Official Use of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Various Office Supplies for the Official Use of the Lower Courts (Re-bidding)

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Comprehensive Healthcare Plan for Supreme Court Officials and Employees for Two (2) Years

Procurement of Comprehensive
Healthcare Plan to All Lower Court
Judges of the 1st and 2nd Level
Including Shari’a Courts

Procurement of Various ICT Equipment for Official Use in the 2021 Bar Examinations

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Twenty-Four (24) Notebook Computers for Use in the 2021 Bar Examinations (Re-bidding)

Invitation to Bid for the Procurement of Service Vehicles for the Official Use of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court

Procurement of Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Bontoc, Mountain Province Hall of Justice

Procurement of Consulting Service for the Olongapo City (DAED)

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Supply, Delivery, and Installation of Split Type Air-Conditioning Units in the Halls of Justice Nationwide

Procurement of Works Contractor for the Waterproofing of Roof Deck in Iloilo City Hall of Justice Main Building

Procurement of Proposed Refurbishment of Leased Property to House the Newly Created Municipal Trial Court in Cities (MTCC), Branches 3 and 4 of Roxas City, Capiz

Procurement of Proposed Refurbishment of Leased Property to House Regional Trial Court (RTC), Branch 132 and Office of the Clerk of Court (OCC) in Naic, Cavite

Procurement of Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design (DAED) Consultant for the Repair and Rehabilitation with Expansion of Dipolog City Hall of Justice

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Comprehensive Technical Maintenance Service Provider of Elevator Unit at the Pasig City Hall of Justice

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Proposed Construction of Laoag City Hall of Justice

Invitation for Negotiated Procurement of Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Bolinao, Pangasinan Hall of Justice

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Standard Preventive Maintenance of Elevator at Lapu-Lapu City Hall of Justice

Procurement of Consultancy Services for the detailed Architectural and Engineering design of the San Pablo City, Laguna Hall of Justice

Procurement of Project Management (PM) Consultant for the Construction of Cagayan De Oro City Hall of Justice

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Proposed Refurbishment of Leased Property at Lucena City, Quezon to House Regional Trial Court Branches 167 and 168

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Proposed Refurbishment of Leased Property to House the Newly Created Regional Trial Court Branches 297, 298, and Metropolitan Trial Court Branches 165, 166, and 167 of Pasay City

Procurement of Works Contractor for the Construction of Santa Monica, Surigao Del Norte Hall of Justice

Invitation for Works Contractor for the Proposed Completion of the Hall of Justice in Gonzaga, Cagayan

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Semi-Comprehensive Preventive Maintenance of Elevator at San Juan Hall of Justice

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Standard Preventive Maintenance of Elevator at San Fernando City, Pampanga Hall of Justice

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Bansud, Oriental Mindoro Hall of Justice

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Supply, Delivery and Installation of Furniture, Fixture and Equipment at the Newly Constructed Antipolo City Hall of Justice

Request for Expression of Interest for the Negotiated Procurement of Consultancy Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design for the Hall of Justice in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan

Request for Expression of Interest for the Proposed Procurement fo Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design (DAED) Consultant for the Proposed Repair and Rehabilitation with Expansion of the Hall of Justice in Zamboanga City

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Installation of Pediment, Signages and Floor Tiles at the Hallway, Painting of Exterior and Hallway of Malolos City, Bulacan Hall of Justice

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of Leased Property to House the Newly-Created Regional Trial Court Branches 172-173 at Gumaca, Quezon

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of Court of Appeals Building for the Newly-Created Regional Trial Court Branches 78 and 79, and Municipal Trial Court in Cities Branches 5 and 6, all of Baguio City

Invitation to Bid for the contract of security service for the Halls of Justice in Region VI (Western Visayas)

Request for the Construction of the Manila Hall of Justice and the Court of Appeals Buildings in Cebu and Cagayan De Oro

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consultancy Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the San Pablo City, Laguna Hall of Justice

Request for Expression of Interest for the Negotiated Procurement of Consultancy Service for the Project Management of Laoag City, Ilocos Norte Hall of Justice

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Standard Technical Maintenance Service for One Elevator Unit at the Mandaluyong City Hall of Justice

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Standard Technical Maintenance Service for One Elevator Unit at the Muntinlupa City Hall of Justice

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Lease of Office Space for Regional Trial Court (RTC) Branches 289-293 and Family Court (FC) Branch 4 of Malabon City

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Bolinao, Pangasinan Hall of Justice

The Procurement for Works Contractor for the Construction of Hall of Justice in Matnog, Sorsogon

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design Consultant for the Proposed Construction of the New Imus City, Cavite Hall of Justice

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Bolinao, Pangasinan Hall of Justice

Janitorial Services for the Halls of Justice stationed in Region X (Bukidnon, Camiguin, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental and Lanao del Norte

Construction of the Anahawan, Southern Leyte Hall of Justice

Construction of the Hall of Justice Building in Tagkawayan, Quezon

Repair fo the Municipal Circuit Trial Court Dapa-Socorro Hall of Justice in Dapa, Surigao del Norte

Repair of the Hall of Justice in Del Carmen, Surigao del Norte

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Mercedes, Camarines Norte Hall of Justice

Procurement of Consulting Services for the Preparation of the Detailed Architectural Engineering Design for the Puerto Princesa, Palawan Hall of Justice (Building 2)

Bid Bulletins:

Invitation to bid for the Architectural Engineering Design (DAED) for the proposed repair and rehabilitation with expansion of the Hall of Justice in Olongapo City Zambales

Notice of Award for the lease of office space in:

Invitation for Procurement of Works Contractor for the Construction of a Perimeter Fence for the Hall of Justice in Legazpi City, Albay

Procurement of Lease of Office to House the Newly-Created Branches 3 and 4, Municipal Trial Court in Cities, Roxas City, Capiz

Invitation to Submit Proposals for the Lease of Office Space to House the Newly Created Family Court of Bauang, La Union

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Contract of Janitorial Services for the Halls of Justice Stationed in Regions XI, XII and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM)

Invitation to Bid for the Midsayap Cotobaro refurbishment project

Invitation for Negotiated Procurement of Works Contractor for the Construction of Sta. Monica, Surigao Del Norte Hall of Justice

Notice of Award for the Procurement of Consulting Services for the Construction of Halls of Justice in:

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consulting Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design for Construction of the Lucena City Hall of Justice

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Tago, Surigao Del Sur Hall of Justice

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Repair and Rehabilitation of the Hall of Justice in San Jose, Camarines Sur

Invitation to Bid for Works Constructor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice in Guinayangan, Quezon

Repair fo the Hall of Justice in Laoang, Northern Samar

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of Leased of Office Space to House the Newly Created Regional Trial Courts Branches 180 to 187 of the City of Manila

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and Bid for the Contract of Janitorial Sevice for the Halls of Justice in Cordillera Administrative Region

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Supply and Delivery of Non-Inverter Split Type Air-Conditioning Units in the Halls of Justice Nationwide

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Supply and Delivery of Non-Inverter Window Type Air-Conditioning Units in the Halls of Justice Nationwide

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Eight (8) Newly Created Branches 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187 of the Regional Trial Court, Manila

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of the Leased Property in Barotac Viejo, Iloilo

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Newly Created Branches 172 and 173, Regional Trial Court, Gumaca, Quezon

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Contract of Janitorial Services for the Halls of Justice in Regions I, II and CARAGA

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consultancy Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design for the Hall of Justice in Mandaue City, Cebu

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consultancy Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design for the Judicial Complex in Cagayan De Oro City

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consultancy Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design for the Hall of Justice in Puerto Princes City, Palawan

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consultancy Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design for the Hall of Justice in Midsayap, North Cotabato

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consultancy Services for the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design for the Hall of Justice in Masbate City, Masbate

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Newly-Created Family Court of Laoag City

Bids and Awards Committee for the Halls of Justice to award the contract for the repair of the Hall of Justice of Virac, Catanduanes

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of Leased Property to House the Newly Created Courts in Olongapo City

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Municipal Trial Court of Taytay, Rizal

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Newly Created Branch 176, Regional Trial Court, Sta. Cruz, Laguna

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice in Mabitac, Laguna

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice in Guinayangan, Quezon

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice in Coron, Palawan

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of the Leased Property to House Branches 174 and 175 Regional Trial Court and the Municipal Trial Court of San Mateo, Rizal

Invitation to Submit proposals: Negotiated Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Rehabilitation of the Office of the Deputy Court Administrator Jenny Lind R. Aldecoa-Delorino at the 4th Floor of the Hall of Justice in Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu

Invitation to Submit proposals: Negotiated Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Interior Fit-Out of the Office of the Deputy Court Administrator for Mindanao at the 12th Floor of Landco Corporate Center Building, Bajada, Davao City

Invitation to Submit proposals: Negotiated Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Renovation and Coversion of Open Space into Office Space for the Use of the Judicial and Bar Council

Procurement of Security Service Provider for the Halls of Justice in Cluster IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) and Cluster X (Northern Mindanao)

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of the Leased Property in Barotac Viejo, Iloilo

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consulting Services for Project Management for the Laoag City, Ilocos Norte Hall of Justice

Invitation to Bid for Works Constractor for the Refurbishment of Leased Property in Makati City for the Use of Newly Created Courts

Invitation to bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice Building in Anahawan, Sothern Leyte

Invitation to bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice Building in Matnog, Sorsogon

Invitation to bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice Building in Sta. Rita, Pampanga

Procurement of Consulting Services for the Preparation of the Detailed Architectural Engineering Design for the Proposed Construction of the Tagbilaran City Hall of Justice

Procurement of Consulting Services for the Preparation of the Detailed Architectural Engineering Design for the Proposed Construction of the Lapu-Lapu City Hall of Justice

Procurement for the Contract of Security Service Provider for the Halls of Justice in Central Luzon Region

Procurement of Consuting Services for the Preparation of the Detailed Architectural Engineering Design for the Proposed Construction of the San Pablo City Hall of Justice

Procurement of Consulting Services for the Preparation of the Detailed Architectural Engineering Design for the Proposed Construction of the Cebu Hall of Justice

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Newly Created Regional
Trial Court Branch 132 and Regional Trial Court – Office of the Clerk of Court
of Naic, Cavite

Amended Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Contract of Security Service Provider for the Halls of Justice in Central Luzon

Amended Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Contract of Janitorial Service for the Halls of Justice in Cordillera Administrative Region

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Contract of Security Service Provider for the Halls of Justice in Central Luzon Region

Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid for the Contract of Janitorial Service for the Halls of Justice in Condillera Administrative Region

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of Leased of Office Space to House Three (3) Branches of the Regional Trial Court (RTC), Municipal Trial Court, Sharia’h Court, Office of the Clerk of Court of the RTC, Library, Mediation Office and Maintenance Office in Midsayap, Cotabato

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Consulting Sevices for Project Management for the Laoag City, Ilocos Norte Hall of Justice

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Regional Trial Court Branch 39 and Municipal Circuit Trial Court Sogod-Libagon-Bondoc, Sogod, Southern Leyte

Procurement of Lease of Office Space to House the Regional Trial Court Branch 72 and Regional Trial Court-Office of the Clerk of Court of Guimbal, Iloilo

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of the Newly Constructed Hall of Justice Building for the Use of the Newly Created Courts in Malolos City, Bulacan

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice in Tagkawayan, Quezon

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Construction of the Hall of Justice in Talibon, Bohol

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of Leased Property to House the Newly Created Courts in Olongapo City

Invitation to Bid for Works Contractor for the Refurbishment of Office Space in Dinalungan, Aurora

Procurement Monitoring Report as of December 31, 2023

Procurement Of A Contractor For The Retrofitting works at the Supreme Court – Court Of Appeals (SC-CA) Building at Ma. Orosa St., Ermita, Manila (2023-09)

Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Renovation of the Judicial and Bar Council’s (JBC) Office of the Executive Officer and Operating Offices, 2nd Floor, Supreme Court – Court of Appeals (SC-CA) Building at Maria Orosa Street, Ermita, Manila (IP No. 2023-08)

Procurement Of A Works Contractor For The Renovation Of The 5th Floor, Supreme Court – Court Of Appeals (SC-CA) Building at Ma. Orosa St., Ermita, Manila (2023-05)

Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Renovation of the Office of the Clerk of Court – Third Division, 4th Floor, Supreme Court (SC) Multi-Purpose Building (IP No. 2023-07)

Procurement Monitoring Report as of June 30, 2023

Re-bidding for the Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Necessary Repairs of the Office of an Associate Justice, 6th Floor, Old Annex Building, Supreme Court (IP No. 2023-01)

Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Renovation of the Medical Clinic, Supreme Court (SC) Old Compound at Padre Faura St., Ermita, Manila (IP No. 2023-06)

Procurement Of A Works Contractor For The Renovation Of The 5th Floor, Supreme Court – Court Of Appeals (SC-CA) Building

Replacement of Roofing and Flooring of Skywalk at the Supreme Court (SC) Old Annex and New Annex Building (IP No. 2023-03)

Invitation to Bid for the Necessary Repairs of Cottage O at the Supreme Court Compound, Baguio City (IP No. 2023-04)

For the Renovation of the Dental Clinic at the 2nd Floor, Supreme Court (SC) Old Building (IP No. 2023-02)

Necessary Repairs of the Office of an Associate Justice, 6th Floor, Old Annex Building, Supreme Court (IP No. 2023-01)

Procurement Monitoring Report as of December 31, 2022

FOR THE PROCUREMENT OF A Works Contractor for the Necessary Repairs of the Office of the Clerk of Court,
3rd Floor, New Annex Building, Supreme Court

RE-BIDDING FOR THE PROCUREMENT OF A Works Contractor for the Construction of the Judicial Records Office Docket and Supreme Court (SC) One-stop Shop Counters at the SC Quadrangle, New Main Building IP No. 2022-03

FOR THE REPAINTING OF THE PHILIPPINE JUDICIAL ACADEMY (PHILJA) TRAINING CENTER BUILDINGS AT SILANG CROSSING EAST, TAGAYTAY CITY, CAVITE
IP No. 2022-05

FOR THE PROCUREMENT OF A
Works Contractor for the Necessary Repair of Cottage I at the Supreme Court Compound, Baguio City
IP No. 2022-06

FOR THE PROCUREMENT OF A
Works Contractor for the Necessary
Repair of Cottage N at the Supreme
Court Compound, Baguio City
IP No. 2022-04

Construction of a Security Barracks at the Supreme Court Compound, Baguio City

Construction/Expansion of the Security Guard Outpost at the Supreme Court Compound, Baguio City; and

Construction of the Judicial Records Office (JRO) Docket and Supreme Court (SC) One-stop Shop Counters at the SC Quadrangle, New Main Builing

Procurement of a Works Contractor for the Renovation of Rollo Room at the Office of the Clerk of Court, First Division

Procurement Monitoring Report (2nd Semester)

Invitation for Negotiated Procurement (Two Failed Biddings) for the Procurement of Legal Resource Management System (LRMS)

Procurement Monitoring Report as of June 30, 2023 (PDF)

Procurement Monitoring Report as of June 30, 2023 (Excel)

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Legal Resource Management System (LRMS)

Procurement of a Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design Consultant for the Construction of the Court of Appeals Cebu Station Building, thru Negotiated Procurement under Adjacent or Contiguous Mode of Procurement

Request for Expression of Interest for Procurement of Consulting Services for the Acquisition of Landholdings by the Supreme Court-Philippine Judicial Academy

Request for Expression of Interest for the Procurement of Legal Resource Management System (LRMS)

Procurement Monitoring Report (2nd Semester)

Request of Expression of Interest for Development Services using Outsystems Low Code Platform

Procurement for Consulting Services for the Conduct of Process Analysis in the Judiciary Under the Ecourt Project Version 2 of the Supreme Court

Request for Expression of Interest: Consulting Services for Document Management Solution with Electronic Signature Capability

Request for Expression of Interest: Consulting Services in the Development of the Judiciary ICT Governance Framework, Five-year Strategic Plan, Judiciary MIS Operations Manual

Request for Expression of Interest in the Development of the Judiciary ICT Governance Framework, Five-year Strategic Plan, and Judiciary MIS Operations Manual

Privacy Notice for the Supreme Court website

Statement of Commitment to Data Privacy and Security

The Supreme Court of the Philippines respects your privacy and your data privacy rights, as well as employs reasonable measures to protect your personal data in accordance with Republic Act No. 10173 or the Data Privacy Act of 2012 (DPA), its Implementing Rules and Regulations, and the various issuances of the National Privacy Commission (NPC) (collectively, the Data Privacy Regulations).

Brief Service Description and Its General Purpose

Use of the Supreme Court Website

The Supreme Court website serves as the online repository of Supreme Court information, references, and resources accessible to the public. By agreeing to use the Supreme Court website, you agree to the collection, use, disclosure, processing, and storage of your non-personal identification information to enable the Supreme Court to monitor the website’s engagement.

What personal data do we collect?

The Supreme Court website, other than the Email Form (see separate Privacy Notice – Email Form), does not collect personal data or cookies. The following non-personal identification information, however, are collected and stored by WordPress Statistics, a third-party service, to enable the Supreme Court to monitor the website’s performance through its engagement with visitors:

(a) Browser;

(b) Device; and

(c) Internet Protocol address.

The information collected by WordPress Statistics are limited to the foregoing.

For further understanding, please see the brief discussion on WordPress Statistics below.

Why do we collect your non-personal identification information?

The information collected through WordPress Statistics shall be processed to enable the Supreme Court, not only to effectively manage its website, but also to efficiently disseminate information to the public.

How do we process your non-personal identification information?

Where you have provided us with your non-personal identification information, you agree to our collection, use, disclosure, storage, and other processing for the purposes and in the manner set forth in this Privacy Notice.

WordPress Statistics

The Supreme Court website uses a third-party website, WordPress Statistics, to gather anonymous statistical information from site visitors and analyze the web traffic data. Such data is not shared with any other party. WordPress Statistics collects the following:

  • Browser;
  • Device; and
  • Internet Protocol address.

For more information, you may visit: https://wp-statistics.com/2018/08/16/wp-statistics-gdpr/

How do we protect your non-personal identification information?

The foregoing information, which are encrypted, shall be captured, stored, and retrieved by the Supreme Court through the third-party server, WordPress Statistics, solely for the specific purposes stated in this Privacy Notice, i.e., for reference in helping the Supreme Court in effectively managing its website. The data shall be processed and stored with utmost security and confidentiality.

Only authorized website administrators of the Supreme Court have access to the collected data stored and reported in WordPress Statistics as installed in the Supreme Court website, which in turn are subject to strict security protocols.

How long will we keep your non-personal identification information?

The collected information shall be stored in the Supreme Court website database. The Public Information Office (PIO) directly administers and maintains the database and the Supreme Court website. Only the PIO website administrators and authorized personnel shall be granted access to the database of the Supreme Court website. Sharing of any information that are contained in the said database with unauthorized persons is strictly prohibited.

The non-personal identification information collected by WordPress Statistics is stored in its database and is accessible to the Supreme Court at any time via statistics reports until WordPress Statistics is uninstalled.

In all cases, the information will be stored in a secure manner to ensure its confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

Upon expiration of the period of retention, the information collected through the Supreme Court website shall be disposed of and discarded in a secure manner that would prevent further processing, unauthorized access, or disclosure of your data.

Changes to our Privacy Notice:

The Privacy Notice may be updated from time to time. If material changes are required, any revisions shall be published on the Supreme Court website under the News and Announcements page for your immediate guidance. Therefore, we encourage you to review this Privacy Notice periodically so that you are up to date on our most current policies and practices.

This Privacy Notice was last updated on February 20, 2024.

How do you contact us?

If you have any privacy concerns or questions about your data privacy rights or our Privacy Notice, please contact us through:

JUDICIARY’S DATA PROTECTION OFFICER
Supreme Court of the Philippines
Padre Faura St., Ermita, Manila
Philippines 1000
+63 3 8552 9566
dataprivacy.sc@judiciary.gov.ph

1987Constitution

The Supreme Court Under
the 1987 Constitution

As in the 1935 and 1973 Constitutions, the 1987 Constitution provides that “[t]he judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law.” (Art. VII, Sec. 1). The exercise of judicial power is shared by the Supreme Court with all lower courts, but it is only the Supreme Court’s decisions that are vested with precedential value or doctrinal authority, as its interpretations of the Constitution and the laws are final and beyond review by any other branch of government.

Unlike the 1935 and 1973 Constitutions, however, the 1987 Constitution defines the concept of judicial power. Under paragraph 2 of Section 1, Article VIII, “judicial power” includes not only the “duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable” but also “to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government.” This latter provision dilutes the effectivity of the “political question” doctrine which places specific questions best submitted to the political wisdom of the people beyond the review of the courts.

Building on previous experiences under former Constitutions, the 1987 Constitution provides for specific safeguards to ensure the independence of the Judiciary. These are found in the following provisions:

    • The grant to the Judiciary of fiscal autonomy. “Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year, and, after approval, shall be automatically and regularly released.” (Art. VIII, Sec. 3).
    • The grant to the Chief Justice of authority to augment any item in the general appropriation law for the Judiciary from savings in other items of said appropriation as authorized by law. (Art. VI, Sec. 25[5])
    • The removal from Congress of the power to deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 of Article VIII.
    • The grant to the Court of the power to appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law (Art. VIII, Sec. 5 [6])
    • The removal from the Commission of Appointments of the power to confirm appointments of justices and judges (Art. VIII, Sec. 8)
    • The removal from Congress of the power to reduce the compensation or salaries of the Justices and judges during their continuance in office. (Art. VIII, Sec. 10)
    • The prohibition against the removal of judges through legislative reorganization by providing that “(n)o law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its members. (Art. VIII, Sec. 2)
    • The grant of sole authority to the Supreme Court to order the temporary detail of judges. (Art. VIII, Sec. 5[3])
    • The grant of sole authority to the Supreme Court to promulgate rules of procedure for the courts. (Art. VIII, Sec. 5[5])
    • The prohibition against designating members of the Judiciary to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative function. (Art. VIII, Sec. 12)
    • The grant of administrative supervision over the lower courts and its personnel in the Supreme Court. (Art. VIII, Sec. 6)

The Supreme Court under the present Constitution is composed of a Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. The members of the Court are appointed by the President from a list, prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council, of at least three nominees for every vacancy. This new process is intended to “de-politicize” the courts of justice, ensure the choice of competent judges, and fill existing vacancies without undue delay.

RevolutionaryGovernment

The Supreme Court Under
the Revolutionary Government

Shortly after assuming office as the seventh President of the Republic of the Philippines after the successful People Power Revolution, then President Corazon C. Aquino declared the existence of a revolutionary government under Proclamation No. 1 dated February 25, 1986. Among the more significant portions of this Proclamation was an instruction for “all appointive officials to submit their courtesy resignations beginning with the members of the Supreme Court.” The call was unprecedented, considering the separation of powers that the previous Constitutions had always ordained, but understandable considering the revolutionary nature of the post-People Power government. Heeding the call, the members of the Judiciary—from the Supreme Court to the Municipal Circuit Courts—placed their offices at the disposal of the President and submitted their resignations. President Corazon C, Aquino proceeded to reorganize the entire Court, appointing all 15 members.

On March 25, 1986, President Corazon Aquino, through Proclamation No. 3, also abolished the 1973 Constitution and put in place a Provisional “Freedom” Constitution. Under Article I, Section 2 of the Freedom Constitution, the provisions of the 1973 Constitution on the judiciary were adopted insofar as they were not inconsistent with Proclamation No. 3.

Article V of Proclamation No. 3 provided for the convening of a Constitutional Commission composed of 50 appointive members to draft a new constitution; this would be implemented by Proclamation No. 9. Under the leadership of retired SC Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma as its President, the Constitutional Commission of 1986 submitted its output of to the people for ratification.

By a vote of 76.30%, the Filipino people then ratified the Constitution submitted to them in a national plebiscite on February 2, 1987.

President Aquino, other civilian officials, and members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, upon the announcement of the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, swore allegiance to the new charter on February 11, 1987 thereby putting an end to the revolutionary government.

1973

The Supreme Court Under
the 1973 Constitution

The declaration of Martial Law through Proclamation No. 1081 by former President Ferdinand E, Marcos in 1972 brought about the transition from the 1935 Constitution to the 1973 Constitution. This transition had implications on the Court’s composition and functions.

This period also brought in many legal issues of transcendental importance and consequence. Among these were the legality of the ratification of a new Constitution, the assumption of the totality of government authority by President Marcos, and the power to review the factual basis for a declaration of Martial Law by the Chief Executive, among others. Also writ large during this period was the relationship between the Court and the Chief Executive who, under Amendment No. 6 to the 1973 Constitution, had assumed legislative powers even while an elected legislative body continued to function.

The 1973 Constitution increased the number of the members of the Supreme Court from 11 to 15, with a Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. The Justices of the Court were appointed by the President alone, without the consent, approval, or recommendation of any other body or officials.

Ayuntamiento

The Supreme Court of
the Second Republic

Following liberation from the Japanese occupation at the end of the Second World War and the Philippines’ subsequent independence from the United States, Republic Act No. 296 or the Judiciary Act of 1948 was enacted. This law grouped together the cases over which the Supreme Court could exercise exclusive jurisdiction for review on appeal, certiorari, or writ of error.

SupremeCourt

The Supreme Court During
the Commonwealth

Following the ratification of the 1935 Philippine Constitution in a plebiscite, the principle of separation of powers was adopted, not by express and specific provision to that effect, but by actual division of powers of the government—executive, legislative, and judicial—in different articles of the 1935 Constitution.

As in the United States, the judicial power was vested by the 1935 Constitution “in one Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as may be established by law.” It devolved on the Judiciary to determine whether the acts of the other two departments were in harmony with the fundamental law.

The Court during the Commonwealth was composed of “a Chief Justice and ten Associate Justices, and may sit en banc or in two divisions, unless otherwise provided by law.”

ArellanoCourt

The Establishment of
the Supreme Court of the Philippines

On June 11, 1901, the Second Philippine Commission passed Act No. 136 entitled “An Act Providing for the Organization of Courts in the Philippine Islands” formally establishing the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands and creating Courts of First Instance and Justices of the Peace Courts throughout the land. The judicial organization established by the Act was conceived by the American lawyers in the Philippine Commission, with its basic structures patterned after similar organizations in the United States.

The Supreme Court created under the Act was composed of a Chief Justice and six Judges. Five members of the Court could form a quorum, and the concurrence of at least four members was necessary to pronounce a judgment.

Act No. 136 abolished the Audiencia established under General Order No. 20 and declared that the Supreme Court created by the Act be substituted in its place. This effectively severed any nexus between the present Supreme Court and the Audiencia.

The Anglo-American legal system under which the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands was expected to operate was entirely different from the old Spanish system that Filipinos were familiar with. Adjustments had to be made; hence, the decisions of the Supreme Court during its early years reflected a blend of both the Anglo-American and Spanish systems. The jurisprudence was a gentle transition from the old order to the new.

VillamorHall

The Judicial System During
the American Occupation

After Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War in the late 1890s, The subsequent occupation by the Americans of the Philippine Islands paved the way for considerable changes in the control, disposition, and governance of the Islands.

The judicial system established during the regime of the military government functioned as an instrument of the executive—not of the judiciary—as an independent and separate branch of government. Secretary of State John Hay, on May 12, 1899, proposed a plan for a colonial government of the Philippine Islands which would give Filipinos the largest measure of self-government. The plan contemplated an independent judiciary manned by judges chosen from qualified locals and Americans.

On May 29, 1899, General Elwell Stephen Otis, Military Governor for the Philippines, issued General Order No. 20, reestablishing the Audiencia Teritorial de Manila which was to apply Spanish laws and jurisprudence recognized by the American military governor as continuing in force.

The Audiencia was composed of a presiding officer and eight members organized into two divisions: the sala de lo civil or the civil branch, and the sala de lo criminal or the criminal branch.

It was General Otis himself who personally selected the first appointees to the Audiencia. Cayetano L. Arellano was appointed President (equivalent to Chief Justice) of the Court, with Manuel Araullo as president of the sala de lo civil and Raymundo Melliza as president of the salo de lo criminal. Gregorio Araneta and Lt. Col. E.H. Crowder were appointed associate justices of the civil branch while Ambrosio Rianzares, Julio Llorente, Major R.W. Young, and Captain W.E. Brikhimer were designated associate justices of the criminal branch. Thus, the reestablished Audiencia became the first agency of the new insular government where Filipinos were appointed side by side with Americans.

SpanishRegime

The Judicial System Under
the Spanish Regime

During the early Spanish occupation, King Philip II established the Real Audiencia de Manila which was given not only judicial but legislative, executive, advisory, and administrative functions as well. Composed of the incumbent governor general as the presidente (presiding officer), four oidores (equivalent to associate justices), an asesor (legal adviser), an alguacil mayor (chief constable), among other officials, the Real Audiencia de Manila was both a trial and appellate court. It had exclusive original, concurrent original, and exclusive appellate jurisdictions.

Initially, the Audiencia was given a non-judicial role in the colonial administration, to deal with unforeseen problems within the territory that arose from time to time—it was given the power to supervise certain phases of ecclesiastical affairs as well as regulatory functions, such as fixing of prices at which merchants could sell their commodities. Likewise, the Audiencia had executive functions, like the allotment of lands to the settlers of newly established pueblos. However, by 1861, the Audiencia had ceased to perform these executive and administrative functions and had been restricted to the administration of justice.

When the Audiencia Territorial de Cebu was established in 1886, the name of the Real Audiencia de Manila was changed to Audiencia Territorial de Manila.

Map

The Judicial System of the
Pre-Colonization Filipinos

When the Spanish colonizers first arrived in the Philippine archipelago, they found the indigenous Filipinos without any written laws. The laws enforced were mainly derived from customs, usages, and tradition. These laws were believed to be God-given and were orally transmitted from generation to generation.

A remarkable feature of these customs and traditions was that they were found to be very similar to one another notwithstanding that they were observed in widely dispersed islands of the archipelago. There were no judges and lawyers who were trained formally in the law, although there were elders who devoted time to the study of the customs, usages, and traditions of their tribes to qualify them as consultants or advisers on these matters.

The unit of government of the indigenous Filipinos was the barangay, which was a family-based community of 30 to 100 families, occupying a pook (“locality” or “area”) headed by a chieftain called datu who exercised all functions of government—executive, legislative, and judicial—a barangay was not only a political but a social and an economic organization. In the exercise of his judicial authority, the datu acted as a judge (hukom) in settling disputes and deciding cases in his barangay.

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